Janáček in Dates

1854
3 July
born in Hukvaldy, a village in Lachia region of northern Moravia near Ostrava; he is the ninth child of Jiří and Amálie Janáček.
4 Jul.
christened Leo Eugen Janáček;
n.d.
first encounter with music in Hukvaldy, where father Jiří Janáček had worked since 1848 as an independent teacher and church musician; J. sings as descanter in church, plays Beethoven’s piano sonatas, and learns the fundamentals of music theory;
1858
until 1859 – childhood
first childhood experiences mentioned in autobiography;
1859
autumn 1859
begins attending village school in Hukvaldy (already at the age of five; name entered in the honor roll five times during school career );
1865
summer
finishes village school, and on the wishes of his father leaves Hukvaldy in order to be given a thorough education as a teacher of letters and music;
– J. is taken by father to visit Pavel Křížkovský in Škrochovice near Opava; Křížkovský is an enlightened priest, musician, and composer, director of the foundation at the monastery in Brno. The foundation took in poor but promising boys and gave them room and board, for which the students would sing in the choir in church and at other music perfomances; they were provided education at the Brno municipal schools and music education free of charge, Křížkovský was an old friend of LJ.’s father, from the same part of the country; L.J. sings from sheet music without preparation for Křížkovský to show his musical expertise and talents;
– J. is accepted as a foundation ward in both Kroměříž and Old Brno; father decides in favor of the Thurn-Vallesessina foundation at the Augustinian monastery in Old Brno, of which Pavel Křížkovský is director;
September
arrives in Brno, accompanied by mother, to enroll as ward of the foundation in Old Brno;
– as a ward of the foundation he takes part in choral singing, according to J. and foundation records as a descanter, according to Křížkovský as an alto; during his later studies in Leipzig he is listed as first bass; J. occasionally helps out on the organ, learns to play musical instruments, counterpoint, and the basics of music theory; also receives general and middle-school education;
autumn
Jiří Janáček, father of LJ, founds a singing and literature club in Hukvaldy, and is its first choirmaster;
1866
8 March
father Jiří Janáček dies; uncle Jan Janáček (1810-1889), parish priest in Blazice, becomes his guardian. LJ’s correspondence with his uncle Jan dates from this time; mother Amálie takes husband’s place at the church organ until a new teacher is hired (5.10.1866);
summer
in the 1865/1866 school year, Janáček completes mandatory schooling at the German-language school on Lackerwiesse Street, later called Školní, today Leitnerova-Jircháře Street;
July-August:
holidays spent in Brno; witnesses passage of Austrian and Prussian armies through Brno; sings at many funerals as choir member;
fall
in school year 1866-67, begins attending German-language Realschule in Old Brno (in the no-longer-standing Old Brno Town Hall); he finishes Realschule in 1868-69;
n.d.
– with other foundation wards, J. takes part in church music performances; later (apparently 1867) at public concerts – at the Pavillon in Lužánky Park playing piano accompaniment, and at theatre performances in Brno’s Reduta Hall (redute, from French redoutte, is a municpal hall built for entertainment, balls, theatre, and concerts, something like a community center) as a choir member;
1867
30 April
J. recalls that he took part as a choir member in Meyerbeer’s opera “The Prophet”; however, that work was not performed during J.’s time as a foundation student – though they performed Meyerbeer’s “The Aftricanesse” in 1867;
n.d.
somewhere around this time, J. performs as solo vocalist alongside Marie Hřímalá in Beethoven’s “Missa in D”, and as piano accompaniment for Elenora of Ehrenberg at a concert in Lužánky;
summer
probably visited by mother Amálie in Brno;
10 October
with the foundation students, sings Cherubini’s “Mass in C major” at Petrov Church, conducted by Křížkovský;
1868
early in year?
long illness, interrupted school attendance, bad grades; conflict between nephew and uncle, probably followed by a visit by Uncle Jan to Brno;
after 5 July
Janáček writes uncle Jan a conciliatory letter;
holidays
again spent in Brno;
19 August
in a letter, asks Uncle Jan for new clothes for upcoming St. Augustine festival at the monastery;
1869
14 February
as a choir member (“modráček”, or “bluecoat”), takes part in celebration of the millenium of Sts. Cyril and Methodius at Petrov Church and at the Dominican monastery; music directed by Pavel Křížkovský;
26 May
writes Uncle Jan a nationalistic poem “To the Murderers!” and asks him for a traditional Slavonic costume;
3 July
goes with Pavel Křížkovský and the other foundation wards on a trip to the pilgrimage church in the village of Velehrad in southern Moravia, where the millennium celebration of Sts. Cyril and Methodius is held on 5 – 12 July; Pavel Křížkovský directs music at pilgrimage celebration; J.’s first rememberd honorarium for artistic performance, at the procession in honor of the Slavonic Missionaries;
8 July
completes studies at Old Brno Realschule (report card of 31.7.), ending his status as a foundation ward at the Old Brno monastery; actually, J. ceased being a foundation ward before his studies were actually completed because his voice began to change, and, according to the institution’s statutes, he could therefore no longer attend as a ward of the foundation. With the help and financial assistance of Křížkovský, he found rented lodging at a neighboring house (on the site of what is today Mendlovo nám. 2), and he paid for his further tuition and board at the monastery by helping out with the church music. He remained involved with the monastery and its music until the end of the 1880’s;
6 August
writes Uncle Jan and asks to be allowed to visit home after four years in Brno;
n.d.
visits mother Amálie in the town of Příbor, to which she moved in 1866 soon after the death of J.’s father;
n.d.
spends holidays with Uncle Jan, parish priest in the village of Blazice;
September
begins studies at Imperial Institute for the Education of Teachers in Brno (the institute was located at the Minorite monastery until 1878); he finished his studies in school year 1871-72; Janáček showed special interest in psychology, which was taught by its director, Prof. Parthe;
1870
holidays
spent the holidays at his uncle Jan’s in the village Blazice, from which parish Uncle Jan, a priest, had transferred to the parish in Vnorovy (then Znorovy); J. would return periodically until his uncle’s death in 1889; in Vnorovy he becomes acquainted for the first time with the characteristic folk culture of the Moravia-Slovakia border region (Slovácko);
1871
n.d.
is awarded a stipend of 100 gold for his studies at the teachers‘ institute (until 1872); the stipend makes him less dependent on support from Uncle Jan;
1872
6 May
takes part in music performance organized by the Zora choir; the Beseda brněnská and the Svatopluk artisan’s choir take part as well;
20 July
finishes studies at teachers’ institute; preliminary report card is dated 24.7., and the final report card 3.2.1874. Around that time Emilián Schulz, J.’s future father-in-law, becomes director of the teachers’ institute;
from August
assists at the church in Old Brno in rehearsing and performing music, and, after the departure of Pavel Křížkovský to Olomouc, (officially in November 1872, in fact at the beginning of October) replaces him as director of the Old Brno choir (choirmaster, conductor, organist); the position provides no regular financial compensation;
autumn
studies French language (until June 1873, then again in 1883 and 1884);
25 November
becomes assistant (unpaid) teacher at the Imperial Slavonic Institute for the Education of Teachers, and a paid instructor of music at the excercise school (where teachers learned the practical art of teaching students) of that institute; he would serve at the exercise school for two years (until 1874);
1873
19 January
at a concert organized by the Svatopluk choir, J. accompanies violinist O. Kopecký on piano; his name also appears in context with Svatopluk in August 1972, when J. is proposed by director Dr. Illner as the group’s future choirmaster;
13 February
Janáček becomes choirmaster of the Svatopluk artisan’s choir (founded 1868), which he headed until 1876; at the beginning performances were held at the tavern “U bílého kříže” (Pekařská Street in Brno), later in the Besední dům; J. is active in advancing artistic projects intended to raise the quality of the repertoire above the level of popular entertainment and dance; he takes part in social activities such as lectures and excursions; his effort to turn the popular-patriotic society towards more worthy artistic goals are noticed by both newspapers nd the music press (Dalibor) in Prague;
– during the Svatopluk years Janáček writes vocal compositions, of which some (If you don’t want me, what else is there?, I wonder at my beloved, A drowned wreath , There’s no escaping Fate, and On the bushy fir two pigeons are perched) cannot be dated any more precisely than sometime during this period of 1873-1876;
3 April
Brno’s Besední dům (Community Hall) is opened; from the beginning it becomes a bastion of culture, education, and society for Brno’s Czech-speaking community;
by 27 April
composes male chorus Ploughing to the text of a folk song; performed by the Svatopluk choir on April 27 (the chorus, originally part of a cycle under the name “Echoes of National Folk Songs” – belong to the cycle called “Three tunes”, or “Three songs”;
27 April
with the Svatopluk choir, performs at the inn U bílého kříže his male-voice chorus Ploughing and the chorus The enforced bridegroom, based on a Serbian folk text. The latter composition has not survived;
5 June
first performance of male chorus War song (1873), Svatopluk choir conducted by J., performed at the Besední dům (BD);
by 24 June
composes the male-voice chorus War song to a text by an unknown author, first as an à cappella male chorus; later – at the consecration of a banner to celebrate the Svatopluk choir’s five-year anniversary – he reworks the composition as a choral work with instrumental accompaniment; the premiere was held that same year, with new version conducted by J.;
October
writes the male-voice chorus The fickleness of love on the text of a folk song; the choir under J. studied the piece and performed it in November of the same year. One year later he performs the same composition with Svatopluk along with the choruses Ploughing and Alone without comfort (1874) under the title “Three songs”;
n.d.
during school year 1873/74 he attended lectures on Czech language and literature at the Moravian Regional Academy (Mährische Landesakademie) under Prof. Antonín Matzenauer;
9 November
at the tavern U bílého kříže in Brno, Svatopluk performs with J. conducting his male-voice chorus The fickleness of love; on J’s initiative a performance of the “Marseillaise” is added to concert’s program;
1874
January
diligent study and preparation by Janáček for his fall departure for the Prague organ school;
12 Jan
receives from Křížkovský an excellent report and recommendation for his extraordinary musical talents;
3 February
receives grades for rehearsals carried out at the teachers’ institute back on July 20, 1872, on the basis of which he had received a provisional grade;
by 13 Feb.
composes male-voice chorus Alone without comfort to the text of a Slovak folk song; he performed it with Svatopluk one more time that year as part of the cycle “Three songs” (Ploughing, The fickleness of love, Alone without comfort); he returned to the chorus and revised it in 1898 and again in 1925;
8 March
With Svatopluk, J. arranges and conducts the premiere of Alone without comfort; at this concert the chorus Ploughing is performed for the second time; at the same concert J. also appears as a pianist for a piano trio by an author whose name has been lost (also on the program: P. Křížkovský’s “Cyril a Methodius”);
1-6 April
for Easter week J. performs Křížkovský’s mass and other contemporary works at the Old Brno choir; he receives great praise for their arrangement and performance;
6 July
completes one-year course in Czech language and literature at the Moravian Regional Academy, finishing with a test of his qualifications to teach the Czech language at primary and middle school;
8 July
becomes a member of the Readers’ Club in Brno, the city’s most important social center. Alone, then later with his wife Zdenka, he conscientiously attends its lectures and educational and cultural programs; several of J.’s compositions were first performed at the Readers’ Society;
15 July
the music journal Dalibor reports that J. will be awarded financial support from the regional governing committee to allow him to study at the Prague organ school;
6 September
the Svatopluk tradesmen’s choir conducted by J. perform his cycle “Three songs” (the male-voice choruses Ploughing, The fickleness of love, and Alone without comfort) in Šlapanice near Brno;
October
after two years’ experience J. takes proficiency test for teachers at national and local schools at the Imperial Slavonic Teachers’ Institute (diploma dated 18.11.1874); named provisional teacher at the Imperial Slavonic Institute for the Education of Teachers. He would work with ´the institute until 1904;´
n.d.
takes examinations under Prof. F. Blažek, and was accepted to the Prague organ school;
early Oct.
begins attending the organ school in Prague under director František Skuherský. In the single school year 1874/1875 he studied two years worth of material. He lived at no. 50 Štěpánská St.; also studying in Prague at that time were some of his old schoolmates (Old Brno foundation students F. Bílý, F. Jokl a L. Čech), with whom he found student camaraderie;
– J. exhibits the beginnings of interest in Russian; he writes notes of a personal nature in his student notebooks in Cyrillic;
– infatuation with Ludmila Rudišová, whom he knew in Brno; he taught her on the piano;

– during his Prague studies J. wrote several exercises and minor compositions preserved in the Collection of Compositions from Prague Studies; of these compositions, the more important include Sounds in memory of Förchtgott Tovačovský (June 1875), Prelude (June 1875), Varyto (June 1875), and Choral fantasy (July 1875);

– during his studies in Prague J. might have attended some interesting concerts that were taking place at the time – numerous works by Antonín Dvořák, as well as the piano recitals and works of Anton Rubinstein, Liszt’s “Legend of St. Elizabeth”, Wagner’s “Ouverture to Tristan”, Fibich’s “Symphonic Poem”, “Violin Concerto”, and the melodrama “Christmas Eve”. He also heard reformed church music performed at St. Vojtěch’s Church, conducted by Josef Forster;

– J. meets Antonín Dvořák, at that time the organist at St. Vojtěch’s in Prague; their artistic fellowship and warm personal friendship never subsided; J.’s unfailing loyalty laid the foundation for Dvořák’s wide popularity, which J. cultivated during his time at the Beseda brněnská;

– meets Ferdinand Lehner, publisher of the music journal Cecilie, and proponent of the Cecilian reform in church music; J. becomes a contributor to Cecilie, and later harmonizes Czech hymns from the Lehner hymnbook for the Mass; during J.’s studies in Prague, Lehner regarded J. as his protégé; among other things, obtaining for him a practice piano;
18 October
J. is elected an honorary member of Svatopluk;
by 3 December
he reads Durdík’s “General Aesthetics”; J. studies this work, with interruptions, until 1876;
by 29 Dec.
J. composed several minor liturgical works during his studies at the Prague organ school, among them the Graduale “Speciosus forma”, the first surviving work of its kind by J.;
1875
January
studies Wilhelms Ambros’s “Geschichte der Musik”;
5 Jan.
J.’s first published article (about Pavel Křížkovský), printed in music journal Cecilie; this marks the beginning of J.’s literary career as a writer and music critic;
24 Jan.
J. writes an unfavorable review of Skuherský’s performance of the Gregorian Mass (published in Cecilie II., March 1875, pp. 21-22);
March
studies Zimmermann’s “Allgemeine Aesthetik”; returns to the work during his studies in Leipzig;
9 March
J. is “expelled” from organ school, the result of his negative review of Skuherský;
21-29 March
spends his Easter holidays in Brno; for the Easter celebration at the Old Brno monastery he prepares works by Palestrina, Lasso, Handel-Gallus, da Vittoria, Křížkovský, and others;
4 April
attends a benefit concert for Smetana at the Žofín Hall in Prague, at which the now-deaf Maestro is present;
after Easter
reconciles with Skuherský and returns to Prague organ school;
22, 23 July
J. finishes organ school with an exam and a public performance of his Choral fanstasy and Bach’s Toccata and Fugue in C major; diploma dated 24. 7.1875;
by 27 July
leaves Prague;
holidays
travels around Moravia: Břeclav, Moravský Písek, Strážnice, Vnorovy, and Velká; J. acquires thorough knowledge of folk culture, and the characteristic music of Slovácko, the Moravia-Slovakia border region;
first young love, of which there were several; one of them, Běta Gazarková, he fondly remembered years later in his feuilleton “Girl of the Tatras”;
from 8 August
again takes up post as choirmaster at the Old Brno monastery church;
22 August
joint benefit concert for Radhošť charitable society at the BB, featuring Svatopluk, Zora, and the Old Brno foundation choir; J. is the organizer;
end of September
for the entertainment of the Sokol physical fitness movement, he rehearses and performs several light choral pieces with some of its members;
13-17 October
passes state examination in Prague for music at secondary schools and teacher training institutes – in voice, piano, and the organ. On the basis of the exam he was named provisional teacher of music in August 1876;
n.d.
begins a translation of the 3rd vol. of Zimmermann’s “General Esthetics”, but soon abandons the project;
late Oct.
J. confirms in writing that he will again accept the post of choirmaster with the Svatopluk choir which he had left for his studies in Prague;
1 November
organizes a massive choral demonstration in memory of Josef Dobrovský: Křížkovský’s chorus “The Garden of the Lord” is performed at Dobrovský’s grave at St. Wenceslas Cemetery in Old Brno;
by 23 Nov.
composed his two Sonets for 4 violins; the works went unperformed during Janáček’s life; they premiered on 18.10.1958 and 5. 10. 1988 in Brno;
1876
4 January
named assistant teacher of music on a limited-term contract;
by 6 Jan.
male-voice chorus True love (to the words of a Slovak folk song), first performed with the Svatopluk choir in January;
23 Jan.
three of Janáček’s vocal works are performed by Svatopluk: True love, If you don’t want me, what else is there, and Ploughing under the title “Three tunes”; the chorus Ploughing, which previously opened the cycle Echoes of national folk songs, was now placed by J. into a different collection under the title “Three tunes”, while the chorus True love, from in the cycle Echoes of national folk songs, was sung this time under the overall title “Three songs”. It is uncertain whether the composition If you don’t want me, what else is there, was presented as a male-voice chorus or as a song with piano accompaniment; it survived as a song for tenor and piano accompaniment;
3 February
chosen by vote as choirmaster of the Beseda brněnská Philharmonic Society (BB), for which he writes the male-voice chorus Choral elegy;
He remained choirmaster of the (BB) until 1888, and worked with the BB until 1890 (conductor and then also director of its school of music) with an interruption in 1879-1881; he also served as choirmaster of Svatopluk for another year. J. continues to takes part in the social activities of both associations – entertainment and excursions organized outside of the artistic program;
16 Feb.
begins study of Helmholtz’s Lehre von Tonempfindungen, finishes in January 1879;
by Feb. 23
male-voice chorus Choral elegy (lyrics by František Čelakovský) written for his inaugural concert with the Beseda brněnská; the work was probably composed soon before its first performance;
26 Feb.
joins the Sokol patriotic physical fitness movement, to which he later (1893) dedicated the composition Music for club swinging (intended as accompaniment to mass physical exercises, it premiered in 1893 in the Besední dům);
Spring
J. organizes ad hoc (amateur) choir, with which he performs works by Palestrina, da Vittoria, and others at St. Michal’s church; draws much attention with his emphasis on the “Slavonic”;
3 April
premiere of male-voice chorus Choral elegy at concert of BB, where J. is introduced as the BB’s new choirmaster;
n.d.
J. becomes piano student of Amálie Wickenhauser-Nerudová, with whom over the next two years he would organize chamber concerts and perform in concert as pianist and chamber musician;
14 June – 22 August
spends holidays away from Brno; after his return to Brno he rehearses with the Svatopluk choir;
30 August
named provisional teacher of music, with the duties of exercise teacher, at the Teachers’ Institute, on the condition that he take his examination on the violin within a year; he passed the examination on 7.11.1878;
30, 31 August
J. takes part in a concerts at the Old Brno church (under the direction of Křížkovský) at which the new organ is consecrated and tested;
15 October
concert by the Svatopluk choir, with J. conducting, featuring the choruses of Arnošt Förchtgott-Tovačovský, in memory of that composer; J.’s last appearance with the Svatopluk choir;
13 November
premiere of the introduction to the melodrama Death, based on Lermontov’s poem of the same name. Neither the introduction nor the work itself have survived;
n.d.
probably the year that the choral work You can’t escape fate was written, on a Serbian folk text, as well as the male-voice chorus On the bushy fir two pigeons are perched (folk text); date of first performance unknown;
1877
5 January
J.’s first paper on theory, “A general clarification of melody and harmony”, Part I, appears in the music journal Cecilie; part II is published in March;
6 Jan.
first chamber concert organized by Janáček and Amálie Wickenhauser, J. playing the piano part in Mendelssohn’s “Trio in C minor”;
14 Jan.
second chamber concert by Janáček and Wickenhauser, J. plays Beethoven’s “Sonata in F major” for piano and violin; the concert also included a performance of Brahm’s “Piano Quintet” op. 34, which J. analyzed soon after in the newspaper Moravská orlice under the title “Brahm’s Quintet”; the analysis was published in installments in the daily press and was not published to the end; neither the final part or the manuscript are extant;
18 Jan.
J. proposes that the Beseda brněnská (BB) engage by contract a permanent string section for its concerts. The proposal is adopted, thus providing a partial and provisional remedy for the non-existence of a permanent professional orchestra at the BB;
February
J.’s first published composition, Exaudi deus, motet for mixed choir, published in journal Cecilie;
n.d.
makes the acquaintance of Zdenka Schulzová, daughter of Emilián Schulz, director of Teachers’ Institute; he becomes her piano instructor;
spring
substitutes for choirmaster Josef Nesvadba as music teacher at the Vesna girl’s school;
n.d.
Janáček becomes a contributing member of the Vesna Society, a girl’s centre for Czech-language scholarship, enlightenment, and cultural awareness, to which he is introduced by his friends František Dlouhý and J. L. Šichan; several of J.’s works premiere at Vesna Society events. From 1882 J.’s father-in-law Emilián Schulz teaches there, and in the future J.’s wife Zdenka and especially his daughter Olga would be active in the group;
21 March
with Vesna and its choir, J. performs in a program for a dance at the Sokol Hall;
10 June
excursion with BB to nearby town of Adamov (they sing at mass), outing to “Bull Cliff”;
20 June – 13 July
spends summer months in Prague as a student of František Skuherský (?) at the Prague organ school, where he studies musical form;
July
in journal Cecilie (vol. IV) he publishes methodological study “The Principles of Instruction at Slavonic Teachers’ Preparatory Institute in Brno”;
by 15 July
to words by Karel Kučera, J. writes Festive horus for the laying of the cornerstone of the Imperial Slavonic Teachers’ Institute (first performance at ceremony on 15.7.); it was performed again that same year at a concert of the BB on 28.10. with the participation of around 250 singers (men’s and women’s choruses), some of whom were students at the Teachers’ Institute; concert directed by Leoš Janáček;
7 October
Amálie Wickenhauser organizes a concert at the Reduta theatre, at which she and Janáček perform Schumann’s “Andante con variazioni for 2 pianos”;
28 October
at a concert of the BB, Janáček performs Mendelssohn’s “Piano Concerto in G minor” as pianist (other sources give the “Capriccio in B minor” op. 22), and, that same evening, Rubinstein’s “Fantasy for 2 Pianos” with Amalie Wickenhauser;
December
adapts four of Dvořák’s Moravian duets for mixed choir and piano; the first performance of these four duets (Janáček’s arrangement) takes place at the BB on 2 December 1877 conducted by J.; two more duets were finished by November 1884, when they also premiered;
by 2 December
composes Suite for strings; premieres that same year at a concert of the BB, conducted by J.;
2 Dec.
first performance of J.’s Suite for strings and the Moravian duets arranged by J. for piano and mixed choir; concert organized and performed by the BB, rehearsed and conducted by J.;
by year’s end
undertakes thorough review of BB repertoire, instituting many changes that raise the general artistic quality of the concerts of the BB;
– under Janáček’s direction, the BB becomes an artistic haven for the music of Antonín Dvořák; also performed are works by Mozart, Bach, Smetana, Liszt, Rubinstein, and Tschaichakovsky ;
– during his tenure Janáček brings important artists to the BB, and succeeds in having women’s sections added to the choir; he attempts to found a permanent orchestra, and promotes concerts of chamber music and concerts of the so-called “popular” type; J.’s demands for a higher artistic standard are not always welomed by the society’s board of directors, which insists on maintaining a greater aspect of popular entertainment in the productions;
in the school year 1877-78, Janáček also teaches music at the Slavonic Women Teachers’ Institute;
1878
6, 13 January
two chamber concerts by Leoš Janáček and Amálie Wickenhauser; at the first J. plays Rubinstein’s “Trio in F major op. 15”; at the second, Saint-Saëns’ “Piano Trio in F minor”;
14 April
performs Mozart’s “Requiem” with the Beseda brněnská (BB);
summer
writes Anton Rubinstein in St. Petersburg, under whom he wishes to study the piano; requests a stipend; the letter is returned unanswered a year later;
24-26 July
travels to Prague, visit Dvořák, probably Skuherský;
26 July – early August
travels to Germany;
-after visiting Dvořák in Prague, he departs for the Steinmeyer organmaking workshop in Oettingen (Bavaria), which builds a new organ for the church in Old Brno; he also visits Munich, takes a trip to Stahrenberg Lake, visits Harz, and stops to visit his brother in Thale; he returns to Brno via Prague;
by 24 August
during August he composes his Idyll for string orchestra (premiere 15.12.);
by 15 September
composes Chorus to commemorate the consecration of the new building of the Imperial Slavonic Teacher’s Institute (first performance 15. 9.);
n.d.
organizes chamber concerts at the teachers’ institute;
7 November
passes supplemental state exam on the violin (supplemental test of 1875);
11 Nov.
Janáček certified to teach music at teachers’ institutes; he is now a full-fledged music teacher;
6 December
3rd movement of Suite for strings (1877) performed as a violin quartet at an academic concert of the teachers’ institute under the title Sarabanda (the movements were originally named after old dances); the concert also featured Janáček’s improvisation on an organ fantasy;
15 Dec.
conducts the premiere of his Idyll (1878) at a concert of the Beseda brněnská (BB); at the same concert, Dvořák’s Slavonic Dances are conducted by the author himself, who also plays piano accompaniment to male-voice choruses also sung at the concert; J. on the piano plays Saint-Saëns’ “Piano concerto” op. 22; the first documented visit by Dvořák to Brno took place through the auspices of J., prepared a welcoming speech and helped give the concert a festive atmosphere;
1879
5 January
at a Beseda brněnská (BB) chamber concert, J. plays Rubinstein’s “Piano quintet in G minor”, and the “Sonata in F major for two pianos” by Friedemann Bach (with Amálie Wickenhauser);
12 Jan.
J.’s last joint concert with Wickenhauser; Reinecke’s arrangement of Schumann’s “Manfred” for two pianos, and “Piano trio in B major” by Bargiel;
2 March
at an academic concert (a school concert by students and teachers) of the teachers’ institute, J. improvises on an organ fantasy, and plays Dvořák’s “Slavonic Dances” together with Zdenka Schulzová;
2 April
studies and performs Beethoven’s “Missa solemnis” with the BB; the concert drew enthusiastic praise;
12 April
Fr. Zd. Skuherský sends a letter of recommendation praising J.’s musical education and talents, to the director of the Imperial Slavonic Teacher’s Institute, in support of J.’s request for leave of absence to study in Leipzig;
24 April
J. conducts mass for celebration of Emperor’s silver wedding anniversary;
18 May
at an academic concert of the teacher’s institute, J. and Zdenka Schulzová play Dvořák’s 8th “Slavonic Dance” for piano for four hands;
23 June
visits Vienna for the first time; there he checks at the ministry on the progress of his request for leave submitted in April;
17 July
J. obtains leave for the first semester of school year 1879-80 on the condition that the ministry not incur any expenses for a substitute teacher;
August?
asks Mrs. Schulz for the hand of young Zdenka Schulzová; the engagement is announced next summer (1. July 1880);
31 August
performs Smetana’s “Czech Dances” as a concert pianist for the 10th anniversary of the Radhošť charitable society;
8-9 September
J. travels to Rožnov (northern Moravia) for an academic concert at the unveiling of a memorial to Czech historian and patriot František Palacký; J. plays his piano Dumka (no longer extant), Smetana’s Czech Dances, and accompanies the singing of Marie Červinková-Riegrová;
n.d.
J.’s mother Amálie moves to Brno (Měšťanská street 15, on today’s Mendlovo náměstí);
– J. completes first term as choirmaster at BB;
17 September
J. applies for studies at the conservatory in Leipzig; leaves for Leipzig in late September, via Prague;
from 1 October
resides in Leipzig; rents lodging at Plauensche Strasse no. 1;
– studies organ, piano, and composition at the royal conservatory in Leipzig from October 1879 to end of February 1880; also attends lectures by O. Paul at the University of Leipzig;
– during his studies in Leipzig, Janáček wrote many exercise compositions, most of which are lost. Remaining are: Romance for violin and piano (November 1879) a Variation for piano in B major “Zdenka’s variation” (late January 1880);

– in Leipzig he is involved in the music scene (concerts in Gewandhaus, religious concerts (motets) at St. Thomas’, chamber, and solo concerts, conservatory concerts), on which he commented in his journal and in the margins of surviving concert programs; also surviving are 130 of J.’s letters to Zdenka Schulzová during the Leipzig period; J. would often write letters in several installments a day;

– attends concerts, mainly of choral and instrumental period music, and the classic repertoire; he did not attend the opera; of the artists, he especially appreciated Anton Rubinstein, Clara Schumann, and conductor Arthur Nikisch;
November
considers studying in Paris; he returns to the idea after Easter (he wanted to study under Saint-Saëns), but his intention was never realized;
from 25 Nov.
begins private study of Berlioz’s theory of instrumentation;
6 Dec.
Oskar Paul, whose lectures J. attended at the University of Leipzig, and who taught J. at the Leipzig conservatory, writes J. a certificate testifying to his mastery of the material and his extraordinary musical maturity;
Christmas
spent in Brno with Zdenka and the Schulz family;
1880
6 January
Dvořák conducts his “Symphony in F major” and his “1st Rhapsody” at the BB; J. was absent;
8 Jan.
finishes his piano Zdenka’s minuet in Leipzig; the composition is lost;
25 Jan.
J. receives from the ministry another six months’ leave, allowing him to continue his studies, this time in Vienna;
29 Jan. – 22 Feb.
composes Variation for piano in B major, entitled Thema con variazioni and subtitled “Zdenka’s variations”; the composition survives; J. did not performed it publicly in Leipzig;
24 Feb.
J.’s last letter from Leipzig, addressed to Zdenka; between Leipzig and Vienna J. spends time in Brno;
31 March
arrives in Vienna; the next day J. rents a room at Riemerstrasse no. 9, and a practice piano; a number of exercise compositions were written during his Vienna studies, of which only one survives (Dumka for violin and piano), and the proof of its performance relates only to Violin sonata no. 2; his Vienna compositions are mentioned in his letters to Zdenka Schulzová, to whom he wrote 43 separately dated letters during two months;
April – May
study of piano and composition at the 2nd year level of the Vienna conservatory (from 1 April to 2 June 1880); Julius Korngold and Franz Schalk were studying at the same level there at the time;
14 April
first visit to an opera performance: “Der Freischütz” by K. M. von Weber, performed by the Vienna Court Opera;
16 April
goes to Brno for Sunday, returns to Vienna on 20 April;
20 April – 13 May
composes Violin sonata no. 2 (lost), Violin quartet (lost), and the cycle Frühlingslieder (lost); Dumka for violin and piano evidently dates from this period as, although proof of this is entirely lacking. Unlike most of the compositions from the Leipzig and Vienna period, Dumka survived; its was first performed on 8.3.1885 in Brno at a concert of the Union for the lorification of Church Music in Moravia;
21 April – 7 May
composes song cycle Frühlingslieder on the lyrics by V. Zusner (and enters it in the competition for the Zusner Prize); the songs were never performed in public and are not extant;
24 April
in a letter from Vienna he accepts in writing the position of choirmaster at the BB, provided he conducts only concerts, not musical entertainment;
30 April
another trip to Brno, returning to Vienna on 4 May;
11 May
he enters the cycle Frühlingslieder based on Zusner’s poem in the competition;
14 May
named full teacher of music;
24 May
obtains certificate of studies at the Leipzig conservatory; for the Whitsuntide holidays he returns to Brno;
28 May
in the hall of the Vienna conservatory he performs, along with violinist Viktor Herzfeld, the second movement of his now-finished Violin sonata no. 2. The composition was performed as part of an examination, after the successful performance of which he was allowed to submit the composition for the conservatory’s medal of honor competition. The jury disallowed Janáček’s entry; among J.’s reactions to his lack of success in Vienna was the desire to leave for Prague to see Dvořák; he didn’t;
30 May
Franz Krenn, J.’s teacher of composition, wrote a letter of recommendation praising J.’s musical talents, in favor of J.’s application to study at the Vienna conservatory;
2 June
J. doesn’t wait for the result of the Zusner competition, but ends his studies at the conservatory and leaves Vienna;
After ending his studies:
visit to Uncle Jan in Vnorovy, in the Moravian Slovakia region
12 June
the cycle Frühlingslieder does not receive a prize;
after returning to Brno J. resumes

– his duties at the teachers’ institute (where he is named full teacher),

– his artistic and organizational activities at the Beseda brněnská (by 26 June at latest)

– the direction of the choir at the Old Brno monastery, where Metoděj Janíček had been filling in for him during his absence;

at this time J. resides at Měšťanská 49 (today Křížová ul.) with the Freyschlags, across from the famous roadhouse inn Modrý lev (the Blue Lion); neither the Blue Lion or the Freyschlag house exist today;
1 July
L.J.’s engagement to Zdenka Schulzová is publicly announced;
22 Jully
J. conducts choruses sung by the BB during the Emperor´s visit to Brno;
by 18 September
composes the mixed chorus Autumn song to a text by Jaroslav Vrchlický, and dedicates it to the BB for its 20th anniversary (it premiered 12 December 1880 at a BB concert, conducted by the author); the chorus was performed together with the Idyll for string orchestra, which had premiered in 1878;
12 October
for the daily Moravská orlice he writes his first opera critique, of Gounod’s “Faust”
12 December
at a concert of the Beseda brněnská, J. conducts Smetana’s Vltava, and the premiere of his mixed chorus Autumn song (1880); also played at the concert was his Idyll for string orchestra (1878);
1881
January
first conflicts with BB, after performance of the chorus Autumn song; J. would not appear with the BB for an entire year;
6 Jan.
played piano part for his two compositions Menuet and Scherzo for clarinet and piano and Sonata for violin and piano. Neither of these premiered compositions has survived;
16 Jan.
at an academic concert of the teachers’ institute, J. and Zdenka Schulzová perform Volkmar’s “Adagio for organ and four hands”;
6 February
at an academic concert of the teachers’ institute, J. conducts his mens’ chorus Ploughing (prem. 1873);
4 June
the statutes are approved for the Union for the Glorification of Church Music in Moravia, which soon became the founding organization for the organ school;
13 July
marries Zdenka Schulzová. One of the witnesses is painter and photographer Ladislav Šichan, who presented the newlyweds with two portraits. J.’s portrait now hangs in the L.J. Memorial in Hukvaldy, while the portrait of Zdenka Janáčková is at this writing part of a private collection in Austria;

takes honeymoon trip with Zdenka to the village of Obříšství to visit her grandfather Schulz, to Prague for a week where the couple met with Antonín Dvořák, Kutná Hora, and to Zdenka’s relatives in Kolín; then a visit to uncle Jan in Vnorovy, and to Strážnice, Velehrad, Buchlov, and Hukvaldy; visiting Hukvaldy for the first time since his father’s death, he introduces his wife to his older sister Josefa; on the way home they visited Křížkovský in Olomouc;

newlyweds reside at Měšťanská street 46;

until 22 November
completes his harmonization of Czech hymns from the Lehner hymnbook for the Mass; J.’s harmonization is published in Brno the following year;
23 Nov.
founding general assembly of the Union for the Glorification of Church Music in Moravia; under the auspices of the Union an organ school is founded, of which J. was director for the entire time of its existence;
before December
J.’s mother Amálie moves from Brno to her daughter Eleonora in Švábenice;
7 Dec.
named director of the organ school (remained so until 1919, when the organ school was transformed into the conservatory); the organ school is temporarily located in the building of the teachers’ institute; instruction beginning in September of the following year;
1882
30 January
J. lecture on folk song at the Literary Club of the Readers’ Society;
February
the board of the Beseda brněnská (BB) asks J. to resume his activities there; J. accepts the offer, and from
17 Feb.
he reinvolves himself in BB activities;
2 April
rehearses and conducts “Stabat Mater” by Antonín Dvořák for a concert of the BB;
5 April
J. proposes that a music school be established through BB, but the plan goes unrealized. During the year J. incorporates the existing violin school at the BB with the organ school, then further broadens studies to include the cello and contrabass. J. becomes the head of a properly established BB music school when it is finally founded in 1884, remaining as director until 1890;
29 April
the choirs Vesna, Zora, and BB hold a concert to mark the 25th anniversary of the founding of the Zora society; J. prepares the performances of choral works by Pavel Křížkovskýého and F. Pivoda;
13 August
J. takes part in Czech nationalist festival at Lužánky hall, in honor of the Kolín branch of the Sokol organization and the music of Kmoch; BB performs two choruses with J.;
14 Aug.
the Janáčks move to Klášterní nám. 2
15 August
daughter Olga born in the apartment of Emilián Schulz (Měšťanská 54, today Poříčí-Křížová); the godparents were J.’s mother Amálie and J.´s brother Karel;
September
organ school opened at 3 grade levels. J. teaches all 3 grades of theory and composition; at the end of the year students passed a public examination, besides appearing at public concerts; later so-called “sonata classes” were (1908) opened; as director of the organ school J. carefully selected the teaching staff, maintaining a high level of quality in the institution and a strict set of school rules;
autumn
beginnings of conflict in the marriage of Leoš and Zdenka Janáček; the couple is separated for more than a year; Zdenka and little Olga go back to her parents; the conflict between the couple is not smoothed over until summer 1884;
15 October
the BB violin school, now transferred to the organ school, begins its activities;
1883
March
at the BB concert Janáček conducts Dvořákś Symphony in D;
July/August
during the holidays, while Dvořák is visiting his tusculum in Vysoká, J. lives in Dvořák’s apartment on Žitná ul. in Prague;
from Vysoká Dvořák and Janáček wandering in the castle Orlík ( July 28.), then in August 25-28 in central and southern Bohemia (Říp, Strakonice, Prachatice, Husinec);
August
composes male-voice chorus Ave Maria on Durdík’s translation of Byron’s “Don Juan”; no known performance during J.’s life;
20 October
elected honorary member of the Beseda brněnská at its general assembly;
30 Oct.
proposes to the BB that, during the period of reconstruction on the future theatre building on Veveří Street, the BB stage a performance of Blodek’s opera “In the well”, the proposal was never implemented;
1884
holidays
stay with Zdenka at spa in Gleichenberg (Styria, Austria);
12 September
J. is appointed director of the BB music school;
n.d.
the Benedictine press in Rajhrad (in Brno, Starobrněnská ul, 21) publishes J.’s 1st and 2nd Compositions for organ;
8 November
completes his arrangement of two more of Dvořák’s Moravian duets for mixed choir and piano; the two duets were first performed by the Beseda brněnská, conducted by Jan Havlíček, on 8.11. 1884; (published together as Dvořák-Janáček: Six Moravian duets);
18 Nov.
death of mother Amálie Janáčková; J. is ill and does not attend the funeral;
6 December
festive opening the Czech National Theatre in Brno
n.d.
J. founds the musical journal Hudební listy, which he edited for four years (from 13.12. 1884 to 1.6.1888), and for which he wrote many articles on history, theory, aesthetic and pedagogy, reviews, and glosses;
end of year
considers composing an opera based on Chateaubriand’s story “The Adventures of the Last Abencerage”. He started reading the story in August 1884, and finally gave up the idea of writing an opera called The last Abencerage in January 1885;
1885
January, February
in Hudební listy he publishes a series of articles analyzing Wagner’s opera “Tristan a Isolda”; he returns to the same topic in 1917 in handwritten notes in German, with many musical examples;
8 March
in the foyer of the teachers’ institute, J. organizes a concert for the benefit of the organ school, and takes part in it as an interpreter and composer; the premiere of his Dumka, played by violinist Sobotka, accompanied by J. on the piano;
11 May
at the funeral of Pavel Křížkovský, the combined choirs of the BB and Svatopluk under J. perform the works of Křížkovský;
until June
composes the male-voice choruses The warning, O love, Alas the war to folk song texts; they become part of the cycle 4 male-voice choruses, dedicated to Antonín Dvořák;
summer
in Kozlovice he writes the melody to folk dances: “troják”, “kyjový”, “požehnaný” a “dymák”; he prepared their piano version together with National dance in Moravia; in the end Dymák was not included in the cycle, and exists as a small independent piece for piano;
July
J. and the BB welcome the Kmoch Band from Kolín at the Brno train station;
n.d.
meets Žofka Havlová, a folk dancer and singer, whom he would later recall more than once in his feuilletons ( “At Harabiš’s”), and finally (1928) in the introduction to the edition of his Lachian dances (J. mentions the year 1885 in his 1898 treatise “The Hamlet Below Hukvaldy”);
– during the same period he meets Jan Myška, a folk dulcimerist from Petřvaldy, and later the folk singer from Mniší, Josef Křístek;
9 August
a benefit concert is held for the Radhošť charitable society; J. performs Dvořák’s “Ouverture to J. K. Tyl” and his “1st Rhapsody”; František Ondříček played Dvořák’s “Violin concerto”;
29 Aug.
the newspaper Moravská orlice publishes J.’s article “On the organization of musical life in Brno”, describing the goals pursued by J. in initiating and building musical activity in Brno and elsewhere in Moravia;
November
composes male’s chorus Your lovely eyes on a text by Jaroslav Tichý; the composition becomes one of the 4 male-voice choruses. The choruses were published in print that same year;
by 15 December
completes mixed chorus The wild duck based on a folk text. The chorus was published that same year in “Songbook for secondary and middle schools”; its first performance was conducted by J. in Brno on 17. 3. 1901, with the choir of the Czech gymnasium in Old Brno;
1886
n.d.
the organ school moves to the garden tract of the house U modré koule at Starobrněnská no. 7.; the house was eventually torn down and a new house built on the site in the early 20th century.
12 March
J. becomes vice-mayor of the BB (until 1887);
10 June
Takes part as a theatre critic in a “survey” conducted as a response to Stránský’s sharp criticism of the Brno theatre scene. J.’s active participation in the survey demonstrated his early committment to the professional and artistic growth of the community where his own operas would eventually be performed;
22 June
J. conducts chorus and chorale on the occasion of a visit by Bishop František Bauer;
July 11-12
J.’s first visit to the Moravian spa of Luhačovice, where he was invited by his uncle Jan Janáček, parish priest in Vnorovy.
n.d.
Janáček is voice teacher at the lower gymnasium in Old Brno, where he becomes friend and colleague with professor and later director, dialectologist František Bartoš; their collaboration in collecting folk songs produced A bouquet of Moravian folk songs (first published in 1890), and Moravian folk songs newly collected (1899-1901);
25 September
J. is named member of an examination committee for teachers at Czech primary and middle schools; he served on the committee until 1903;
7 November
the music journal Dalibor openly criticizes J.´s Hudební listy, thus beginning a long conflict that outlived the journal Hudební listy itself, and did much to negatively influence the way J.’s work and artistic ideas were received in Prague;
14 Nov.
first public performance of J.’s male’s choruses O love and Alas the war (both 1885), sung by the Beseda brněnská, accompanied by the choirs Svatopluk, Hlahol, and Veleslavín. The performance, in Brno, was conducted by J.;
– during two Brno performances (14 and 21 November) by nine-year old Polish pianist Józef Hofmann, whom he would remember later when writing the composition “Remembrances of Brno”;
1887
8 January
conflict between Janáček and Karel Kovařovic, whose opera “The Bridegrooms” was mercilessly panned by Janáček in Hudební listy; the disagreement contributed to Kovařovic’s later refusal to stage J.’s Jenůfa at the National Theater in Prague;
14 Jan.
becomes a member of the Union for a Czech National Theatre in Brno, and is later elected as an alternate board member, in which capacity he was very active both conceptually and organizationally;
1 February
after the Prague journal Dalibor rejects J.’s call for the establishment of a music academy in Prague, he publishes in Hudební listy his outline for an academy, as an institution in pursuit of the highest degree of professional musical knowledge, in the feuilleton “An Urgent Matter!”
end of June
J. intends again to spend his summer holidays at the spa in Luhačovice; whether he actually went there is not documented;
early August
finishes composing his first opera Šárka (on a work of dramatic verse by Julius Zeyer); by the holidays he finishes the piano score, which he sent to Dvořák for review; the opera would be revised many times again before its premiere on 11.11.1925 at the National Theater in Brno
August
visits spa in Cukmantl;
autumn
on J.’s initiative the BB prepares a stage production of Gluck’s “Orpheus”, however, it was never realized;
at the beginning of the school year the BB music school opens a piano department, headed by Janáček;
December 1.
J.´s proposal ´”A proposal for voice teaching courses at gymnasia and Realschulen” is published in Hudební listy.
1888
n.d.
J. begins working with writer Gabriela Preissová;
1 March
J.’s reviews the work of Tchaikovsky in Hudební listy on the occasion of the composer’s visit;
in Prague, J. attends the Prague performance of Tchaikovsky’s works and meets the composer personally;
29 April
at a concert of the Beseda brněnská, he performs the cantata “The Wedding Shirt” by Antonín Dvořák, who attended the concert; J.’s last appearance as choirmaster of BB;
until 14 May
composes 3 male-voice choruses (Parting, The dove, The jealous man), and sends them to Dvořák for evaluation. The works went unperformed during J.’s lifetime;
16 May
son Vladimír born; the godparents are Emilián Schulz and Eleonora Janáčková;
1 June
J. resigns as choirmaster at the BB;
until 18 June
completes the instrumentation of the first two acts of his opera Šárka, but because Julius Zeyer refused J. permission to use his dramatic poem, J. was unable to finish and perform the opera. He laid the work aside, to return to it thirty years later;
holidays
spent in Hukvaldy, to which he would travel regularly, alone or with his entire family; often with his music friends as well. Hukvaldy (along with Luhačovice) becomes one of the anchoring points of J.’s physical environment, both creatively and socially. Later, after years of renting a room with the family of local woodsman Sládek, J. would finally buy a house of his own (today the Leoš Janáček Memorial) in Hukvaldy; the spent the final days of his life there;
n.d.
begins systematic study and collection of folk songs, dance, and music (though the earliest specimens J.’s collection of folk songs date from 1885, he began sustained research and collection only in 1888); at first he concentrated on the area near his hometown of Hukvaldy, the regions of Lachia and Wallachia; among the first results of his transcription and study of folk music are National dances in Moravia, Lachian dances (earlier entitled Wallachian dances), and The little queens;
n.d.
considers writing a ballet to be called Under Radhošt, based on Hálek’s epic poem “Girl from the Tatras”; he wrote a script and created characters. During the following year he abandoned the idea, but later incorporated the musical concept into the ballet Rákós Rákóczy (1891);
1889
n.d.
for Bartoš’s collection “Moravian National Songs Newly Collected”, Janáček writes the study “A few words about Moravian folk songs – the musical aspect”;
– leaves the position of choirmaster at the Old Brno monastery;
– intensive work on folk culture collections; along with philologist František Bartoš and poet Vladimír Šťastný, Janáček also works on folk materials with Františka Xavera Běhálková, Lucie Bakešová, Martin Zeman, Josef Klvaňa, Vlasta Havelková, František Kretz, Františka Kyselková, Madlenka Wanklová, and Dr. Alois Kolísek; the first results of these folk culture studies are his Lachian dances (originally Wallachian dances), National dances in Moravia and The little queens; the Lachian Dances, the definitive version of which was not settled on until the 1920’s, were based on the Wallachian dances; they consisted of a varying number of dances in varying order, with varying instrumentation. The Wallachian dances could be performed in concert or on stage with dancers. The Lachian dances, as they were settled on for performances in 1924 and 1925, lend themselves more to instrumental concert production, though they can be presented as ballet;
13 January
first performance of J.s Lachian dance The little saws (Pilky) by the military band in Olomouc; The little saws is listed as the second of the Wallachian Dances, op. 2 for orchestra; under that title the collection was published in 1890;
21 February
evening of folk culture at the Besední dům with the Vesna Society; first performance with dance of two of the Lachian Dances (Starodávný I and The little saws), referred to at the time as Wallachian dances. At this event J. becomes acquainted with Lucie Bakešová, a choreographer with whom he would work in the future (other Lachian dances), and who would work with J. on his National dances in Moravia (Janáček’s collection and transcripts from 1888-1889, published in 1891 and 1893), and on the performance of folk fiddlers and dancers at the Folk Culture Exhibition in Prague in 1895;
by 21 Feb.
completes arrangement of 11 old ritual folk dances with songs entitled The little queens, collected by Mr. and Mrs. Bakeš; the first performance of J.s adaptation took place on 21 Feb. in Brno;
2 March
at its annual ball, the Readers’ Club perform Starodávný I and The little saws (Pilky), following the success of these pieces at the February ball of the Vesna Society;
spring – early May
he discusses arranging the performance of Wallachian dances as a ballet on the stage of Prague’s National Theater; the Wallachian dances were never realized as a work for the stage, and he incorporated the musical material into the ballet Rákós Rákóczy (1891);
May
dancer Xavera Běhálková rehearses and performs 10 of the National dances in Moravia, then under the title of Dances of the Haná, in Tovačov; eight of the dances with instrumentation for orchestra or orchestra and choir were included by J. in his ballet Rákós Rákóczy (prem. 1891);
23 May
first performance of J.’s male’s chorus The warning (1885) by BB under direction of Josef Kompit;
– probably the first concert performance of six dances: Starodávný I and II, Požehnaný, Dymák, and Pilky saws from the cycle Wallachian dances, at the National Theater (NT) in Brno under the direction of Ferdinand Vach; the date given for the first concert performance of this work traditional in the literature on the subject (some sources give 1898), and has not been reconfirmed;
21 December
“For the benefit of Czech theater”, the National Theater in Brno presents two dances as a dramatic ballet Zabili Matúška (They killed Matúšek) and Ach já zarmúcená (Ach, sorrowful me), originally intended by J. for his ballet Wallachian dances;
1890
11 May
writes a glowing review for the daily Moravská orlice of concert by a Russian singing group under the direction of Dimitri Slavjansky that performed in concert at the BB;
2 June
definitive split with the Beseda brněnská, steps down as director of its music school;
n.d.
together with František Bartoš he publishes A bouquet of Moravian folk songs, which was soon reprinted (1892), then expanded to include Czech and Slovak songs (1901);
until 12 June
composes mixed chorus Our song (first performance posthumously in 1930 in Brno) with both a capella and orchestral versions; for the version with the orchestral accompaniment he replaced the text by Svatopluk Čech with the words of Silesian folk song The grey falcon flew away (first performed in 1890 at the Vesna Society); Our song and The grey falcon flew away are basically the same composition with different vocal arrangements in places;
from October
engaged as a critic for the newspaper Moravské listy;
9 November
son Vladimír dies; soon after his death J. writes an orchestral movement, later given the name of Adagio (premiered 20.12.1930, Brno Radio Orchestra conducted by Břetislav Bakala);
14 December
Gabriela Preissová gives a lecture at the Vesna –School on her drama Jenůfa, which is planned for production by the Brno theater for the following year. J. may have attended this lecture;
n.d.
the firm Bursík and Kohout publish Wallachian dances for orchestra, op. 2 (Starodávný I a The little saws ), which would later become part of the cycle called Lachian dances;
1891
January.
year of the Regional Jubilee Exhibition in Prague, at which appear the first results of J.’s work on and derived from folk culture;
-becomes editor for theater and music for the daily Moravské listy;
completes composition of Suite op. 3 for orchestra and sets final order of the movements; performed posthumously (23.9.1928 at the Exhibition of Contemporary Culture);
3 Jan.
Moravské listy prints J’s study “Wallachian and Lachian Dance”; in it he analyzes the music for four dances to be performed on 7 January in Brno, conducted by J.;
4 Jan.
at the Besední dům, J. and Lucie Bakešová lecture on, and demonstrate, the Moravian dances to be performed three days later at the BB;
7 Jan.
concert premiere of ten of the National dances in Moravia, Brno, Besední dům, Antonína Nikodemová (pf) and Anna Kumpoštová (pf);
at the same concert, performed by the orchestra of the NT in Brno with J. conducting, are the orchestral Wallachian (Lachian) dances: Starodávný II, Čeladenský, Požehnaný, and Kožich; the performance is preceded by a detailed demonstration by Lucie Bakešová and analysis of the dance by L.J;
May
adaptation of folk song for mixed choir and orchestra The mosquitoes’ wedding;
from 15 May. – early July
composes one-act opera The beginning of a romance on a story by Gabriela Preissová, verse libretto by Jaroslav Tichý; premiere 10.2.1894 at the NT in Brno); the opera would be revised once again in late 1891/early 1892;
until 5 June
composes ballet, a picture of the Moravian Slovakia, Rákós Rákóczy, which premieres that same year (24.7) at the NT in Prague during the Regional Jubilee Exhibition; the libretto to the one-act ballet was written by Jan Herben, and based on the epic poem by Vítězslav Hálek “Girl from the Tatras”; choreography by Augustin Berger;
summer
intensive work collecting danaj folk dance and melody (danaj – a type of dance similar to a march, polka, or waltz), which he also transcribes; J. is intrigued by its rhapsodic form;
24 July
the NT in Prague performs the ballet Rákós Rákóczy, subtitled “a picture of the Moravian Slovakia”;
17 November
requests the Czech Academy of Sciences for a study stipend for his collection, which he undertook during the subsequent year in the villages of Velká, Strážnice, Lipov a Březůvky;
n.d.
working with Lucie Bakešová and Xavera Běhálková, J. publishes 2 volumes of arrangements of folk dances for piano and 2 and 4 hands entitled National dances of Moravia; both exercise books contain [5 dances from the Hána Plain and one from Lachia (northern Moravia near Ostrava)]; a third workbook (with Martin Zeman) came out two years later;
1892
18 January
J. sends a one-act opera, The beginnings of a romance, to the NT in Prague. The opera department of the theater returns the work on 2 May of that year;
n.d.
J. selects 15 songs from A bouquet of Moravian folk songs (J. along with F. Bartoš, 1st ed. 1890) and wrote a piano accompaniment for them; the cycle was published as A bouquet of Moravian folk songs and is labeled “Songbook 1”. In 1901 J. published his second book of another 38 songs. The complete songbook with piano part contains 53 songs, and is known as Moravian folk poetry in song (the title it was published under in 1908);
15 February
a folk culture committee is established in Brno to prepare for the 1895 Folk Culture Exhibition in Prague. The committee is headed by František Bartoš; Janáček is an active member, along with others such as L. Bakešová, M. Zeman, J. Čapka-Drahlovský, Prof. O. Hostinský, and Č. Zíbrt;
3 March
J. first hears a verismo opera, Mascagni’s Peasant Cavalier; over thirty years later the two composers would meet in Brno;
2 April
completes the piano arrangement for the dance Ej, danaj!; as a piano composition it was performed posthumously (15.6.1948 in Brno); the musical material of the piano arrangement for the piano part became the basis for I have sown green for mixed choir and orchestra, composed and first performed in Brno in November 1892;
May
ends regular engagement with Moravské listy;
n.d.
collecting in Velká nad Veličkou (Martin Zeman, Pavel Trn), Strážnice (Jan Ráček band) , in Lipov and in Březůvky (Ignác Kaláč group ); this research work led J. to organize a folk concert of the Pavel Trn folk band under the direction of Martin Zeman, held in November in Brno;
20 Nov.
folk concert in Brno at which J. conducts excerpts from his ballet Rákós Rákóczy. The orchestra of the NT in Brno performs 4 dances from the Haná valley region of central Moravia, with two choruses from Rákós Rákoczy (“Musicians” and “Mosquitoes”) and two Wallachian dances (“Čeladenský” and “Kožich”, which are also part of Rákós Rákóczy). Period sources call these dances as “Haná dances”, which refers to their origin in the Haná Valley in Moravia, not the title of the work; J. never used this title, and did not make them an independent cycle. The Pavel Trn folk band from the town of Velká appeared at the same concert;
20 November
completion and premiere of a folk song adaptation, for mixed choir and orchestra, I have sown green; performance conducted by L.J., played by the orchestra of the NT in Brno; later, in 1897, its music and the text were revised extensively, and the music found its way into the opera Jenůfa (the chorus “Daleko, široko”, and the conclusion of the dance of the recruits in act 1);
December
started revisions on his one-act Beginning of a romance, completing the revision in February, 1893;
1893
n.d.
Ferdinand Vach of the school of pedagogy in Kroměříž, meets L.J. at a meeting of teachers of pedagogical schools; their mutual friendship dates from this time;
22 March
early in the year J. considers offering an orchestral suite, consisting of the already-existing Wallachian dances, along with a new arrangement of folk song As we went to the feast for choir and orchestra, first to the publishing house Simrock, then in March to the Czech Academy. With the Czech Academy he intended with this work to support his request for sponsorship of a trip to collect folk material in Moravia, Slovakia, and Silesia. The Academy showed no interest, thus the collection of dances under the title “Czech dances” remained as a mere title, and was never realized. However, the dances had been written (J. renamed them as Lachian dances on an authorized transcript of the score); as building material it found its way into other compositions, or as independent compositions, or as the Lachian dances; under this title they appeared in the definitive arrangement Starodávný I., Požehnaný, Dymák, Starodávný II., Čeladenský, The little saws and were performed on 2.12.1924 in Brno by the orchestra of the NT Brno and conducted by František Neumann. The concert premiere of Lachian dances followed its stage ballet performance at the NT in Brno under the baton of Břetislav Bakala (19. 2.1925);
by 16 April
a five-part piano work is written: Music for pin twirling; dedicated to the Moravian-Silesian Sokol patriotic physical fitness organization; it was performed on 16 April at an exercise performance of the annual Sokol convention in Brno;
by 18 April
composes the male’s chorus Our birch tree for the 25th anniversary of the artisans’ choir Svatopluk, on a text by Eliška Krásnohorská. The composition was published the same year in the Svatopluk Yearbook;
21 May
in Brno, Svatopluk with choirmaster Max Koblížek perform the premiere of Our birch tree (1893);
summer
researching and collecting in Wallachia, in the towns of Jasenice and in Polanka near Vsetín; in Jasenice and in Valšské Meziříčí he writes the folk dances Řezníček and Zezulenka, which he soon afterward adapted for piano. In Polanka he becomes acquainted with folk musician Jan Míčka;
n.d.
3rd volume of National dances of Moravia (in cooperation with Martin Zeman) is published in a version for piano and 2 or 4 hands;
16 December
J. writes an article called “The Music of Truth” for the first issue of the national daily newspaper Lidové noviny. Janáček would work with LN for the rest of his life; the paper would become a major source of information and inspiration for J., and a regular platform for J.’s literary work; he maintained friendly relations with Lidové noviny’s editors;
1894
10 February
premiere of the opera The beginning of a romance at the NT in Brno (theater on Veveří St.) with J. conducting;
March (n.d.)
on J.’s initiative, the Folk Culture Committee for Music in Moravia is established to organize the performances of folk musicians and dancers from various parts of Moravia and Silesia for the 1895 Folk Culture Exhibition in Prague;
18 Mar.
J. takes up the play Jenůfa by Gabriela Preissová: after reading the first act he writes the date 18.3.1894 into his copy. This is the oldest written evidence of the beginnings of work on his opera of the same name;
until 19 March
vocal composition The sun’s come up of the mountains – a mixed chorus with piano accompaniment and baritone solo on the text of a folk song; the premiere took place the same year;
13 May
premiere of mixed chorus The sun’s come up of the mountains, performed by the Beseda brněnská, conducted L.J.;
by 17 June
wrote detailed instructions and script for the Moravian days of the Czechoslovak Folk Culture Exhibition in Prague; he presented this large document entitled “Folk Music” at a meeting of the central committee of the 1895 Folk Culture Exhibition in Prague;
by 7 October
J. writes male’s chorus, a dirge entitled Rest in peace on a text by František Sušil;
1 November
performance of Rest in peace at the grave of Josef Dobrovský at the Old Brno cemetery (no longer existing; site occupied today by a building and a playground at the corner of Polní and Vojtova streets); the dates of the piece’s writing and performance are not certain, but highly probable;
31 December
begins composing opera Jenůfa. By the end of 1896 he had finished the first act, but then he interrupted work on the piece until 1901; it premiered on 21 January 1904 at the NT in Brno;
– he finishes the Introduction to Jenůfa for piano and 4 hands; the folk song The jealous man from the collection of František Sušil provided material; this material was later used by J. for an expanded orchestral version known under the titles Introduction to Jenůfa and Jealousy (1895);
1895
by February
finishes composing Jealousy, an orchestral introduction to Jenůfa; Jealousy premiered as an independent composition in 1906 under František Neumann;
n.d.
becomes chairman of Moravian working committee for the Czechoslovak Folk Culture Exhibition in Prague: he oversaw the selection and rehearsals of dances and music;
15 May – 23 October
Folk culture exhibition in Prague; J. travels to Prague to attend this important event; he writes a commentary for the libretto of the Folk Culture exhibition in his capacity as program advisor, he also brings to the festival Wallachian musicians from Polanka, musicians from Lachia, and singers and dancers from Kunčice pod Ondřejníkem. Before the Prague performance, he organizes a public dress rehearsal of their programs;
15-18 August
Takes active part in the “Moravian Days” part of the Folk Culture Exhibition in Prague; dressed in a čamara, the black coat of the Czech patriots, he leads a procession of the folk artists from the Žofín hall to the exhibition grounds in Stromovka Park;
1896
27 January
On the initiative of the Readers’ Club, the Association for the Support of the Czech National Orchestra is founded at the Besední dům in Brno; J. is an association official beginning in 1898;
19 April
At the Besední dům with J. in attendance, a concert is held by choirs from both the men’s and women’s teachers’ institutes in Brno, gymnasium, and Realschule; first performance of J.’s cantata O Lord (1896) ;
18 July – 2 August
J.’s first visit to Russia: Moscow, St. Petersburg (meeting with brother František), Nizhny Novgorod, where he visited the Pan-Russian Exhibition, which included a performance by the Kmoch Band from Kolín;
n.d.
Organ school moves from Starobrněnská 7 (Dům u modré koule – the House of the Blue Ball) to a new space rented at the corner house Česká č. 7- Jakubská;
1897
n.d.
Janáček begins to take notes on human melodies of speech, from which he derives the basic principles of his compositional method; J. would continue transcribing and studying these melodies of speech for the rest of his life. Many of them are used as musical illustrations in his feuilletons; records of the melodies (around 5000 of them) are preserved mainly in the form of notebooks;
7 March
At a concert at the Besední dům, Janáček’s Echoes of national folk songs is sung by students of the teachers‘ institute: the piece consisted of three male-voice choruses (True love, I wonder at my beloved, The drowned wreath) on folk texts taken down during the early days of J.’s musical awareness. The premieres of the individual choruses and the whole cycle took place somewhere around the time they were written;
– the cycle Echoes of national folk songs originally consisted of 4 songs: Ploughing, True love, I wonder at my beloved, and If you don’t want me, what else is there?. Ploughing was deleted from the cycle soon afterward, and the last piece, If you don’t want me, what else is there? (for tenor and piano), was replaced by the chorus The drowned wreath;
Ploughing, True love, and If you don’t want me, what else is there? are also listed under the title “Three melodies”;
by 21 May
composes the cantata Amarus on the poem of the same name by Jaroslav Vrchlický; he conducted the first performance of the closing part of the cantata “Epilogue” in the spring of 1898; the premiere of the cantata without “Epilogue” was performed by the choir Moravan, in Kroměříž on 2.12.1900 with J. conducting; the entire work was played in Brno on 25. 2. 1912 under the direction of Ferdinand Vach;
August
during his stay at Hukvaldy, J. is visited by composer Vítězslav Novák, whom J. met that year on Novák’s trip to Brno. In Hukvaldy the two composers played Novák’s four-handed “Three Czech Dances”. Janáček’s performance of Novák’s “Sousedská” (Brno, 20.3.1898) and Novak´s dedication own “ Písničky na slova lidvé poezie” to J. helped build their friendship, which cooled after 1900;
fall
collection folk music in Kostice, Podluží ethnic region;
n.d.
publishes analysis “On harmony and its conjunctions”;
by 15 December
composes Festival chorus at the consecration of the flag of the St. Joseph’s Union; the premiere took place in spring of the following year;
18 Dec.
becomes one of the founders of the Russian Circle (est. 18.12., first official meeting 26.1.1898); in its first years meetings were held at the Reader’s Club at the Besední dům; among the founders were MUDr František Veselý, L.J., and bookseller Joža Barvič; the Russian Circle cultivated knowledge of the Russian language, organized lectures, economic discussions, and field trips, as well as concerts at the BD at which Russian music was played and Russian musicians heard; the Russian Circle commenced its activities on 25 May 1898 with a lecture evening on the works of Leo Tolstoy; after the outbreak of WW I its members were persecuted, its property confiscated, and the society itself removed from the register of associations;
1898
n.d.
On the initiative of MUDr. František Veselý, the Polish Society was founded in Brno; J. maintained close ties to the society;
During the year he revised his earlier male’s chorus Alone without comfort (1874); a quarter-century later (1925) he reviewed it again and settled on a definitive version;
lectures about folk song at the Vesna school – summarizes the results of his field research;
January, n.d.
becomes a comité-member of the Society for the Support of the Czech National Orchestra in Brno; through the efforts of J., what was a band becomes an orchestra with concert repertoire;
by 6 March
finishes composing the song Spring song, on a poem by Jaroslav Tichý, with piano accompaniment, which he had begun around Christmas, 1897; the piece was first performed on 6 March at the BD; J. revisited the song in 1905 for a thematic concert of the Friends of Art Club;
20 Mar.
premiere of the Epilogue, a.k.a. the “Funeral March” from the cantata Amarus; it was performed by the Czech National Orchestra, conducted by L.J. Also played at the concert was Dvořák’s symphonic poem “Holoubek”;
24 April
Premiere of Festival chorus, on a text by Vladimír Šťastný (1897), sung by the choir of the teachers’ institute; this male’s chorus had been composed by J. for the consecration of the flag of the St. Joseph’s Union;
September
collecting folk songs in and around the hamlet of Sklenov near Hukvaldy;
by December
produces arrangements of folk songs with piano accompaniment Hukvaldy folk poetry in song, dedicated to the “Under the Acadia Club” in his home village of Hukvaldy;
18 December
Hukvaldy folk poetry in song premieres at a concert of the Vesna Society; the cycle was published the subsequent year by A. Píša;
1899
n.d.
during this year the Czech Academy of Science publish “Moravian National Song Newly Collected, Vol. I” (1899), a collaboration by František Bartoš and Leoš Janáček;
23 April
J. conducts the choirs of the teachers’ institute and the IInd Czech Gymnasium at a concert at the BD, performing works by Liszt and Beethoven;
25 April
publishes “A Textbook for Teaching Voice”;
end of May
at the behest of his student Alois Král, J. visits the village of Březová to study the local folk songs; the resulting collection forms the basis for his monograph on the unique songs of Březová, which he intends to publish in the journal Český lid; the article was never published, but the draft was preserved in manuscript form; in Březová, to which he traveled many times, he encountered during the Whitsun holidays the “sword dance”;
7 June
the Russian Circle organizes a “Pushkin evening”; Janáček’s daughter Olga is among the players. J. conducts Czech National Orchestra playing “Slavonic Holiday” by Glazunov;
August
collecting in Strání, a village in the Moravian Slovakia – transcript of folk music of bagpipers and dancers; he presents their repertoire at a December concert in Brno; in Strání he meets an important collaborator, teacher Alois Doufalík;
11 October
writes and finishes adaptations of 6 folk songs for mixed choir, the Songs of Ukvaldy, dedicated to the Singing-Reading Club in Hukvaldy; the first performance of four of the songs took place posthumously, on 3 July 1944 in Hukvaldy, by a local mixed choir conducted by M. Dohnal;
by 22 Nov.
writes Požehnaný, an adaptation of a folk dance for orchestra. The work was performed in Brno on 11.1.1900 by the Czech National Orchestra, conducted by J.;
by 9 December
writes Kozáček (The little cossack), an arrangement for orchestra of a Russian folk dance; work performed in Brno on 11.1.1900 by the Czech National Orchestra, conducted by J.;
around 11 Dec.
singers, dancers, and bagpipers from the village of Strání perform the old “sword dance” at the Besední dům in Brno; performance organized by J.
1900
by 10 January
J. composes Srbské kolo, an orchestral arrangement of a Serbian folk dance. The work was written for the Slovanská beseda, and was performed on 10 January 1900 in Brno, by the Czech National Orchestra conducted by J.; also played at the concert were J’s Cossack dance, and Blessed – both from 1899, as well as works by Rimský-Korsakov and Chopin. The concert also featured Olga Janáčková as a dancer, while Zdenka Janáčková prepared the costumes. J.’s last performance with the Czech National Orchestra;
22 March
J. is named conservator of the Moravian Regional Museum by the Museum Society;
4 April
J. rehearses and conducts the choirs of the teachers’ institutes and the IInd Czech gymnasium in performing a song by Seikil, a mixed chorus by Romberg, and Křížkovský’s chorus “Cyril and Methodius”;
7 June
he resigns, in writing, from the office of chairman of the Association for the Support of the Czech National Orchestra in Brno;
by 17 July
composes two male choruses: If you only knew and The evening witch, which later become part of the cycle Four male-voice Moravian choruses (premiered on 26.11.1905 in the town of Přerov by the Moravian Teachers’ Choir under Ferdinand Vach);
by 22 October
first 7 works from the piano cycle On the overgrown path, of which 5 were published in 1901 and 1902 as an edition of Slavonic melodies vols. 5 and 6; the compositions were originally intended for harmonium;
2 December
first performance of the cantata Amarus, minus the Epilogue (1897), in Kroměříž, performed by Moravan and conducted by J.;
1901
n.d.
during the year:
– he finishes and publishes the second workbook of 38 songs from Bartoš-Janáček’s A bouquet of Moravian folk songs. The full collection with piano score comprises 53 songs, and is known under the title Moravian folk poetry in song (the title it was issued under in 1908);
– composes, over the course of the year, the 2nd act of the opera Jenůfa; he finishes it in July 1902 and progresses immediately to Act 3;

– the journal of the Moravian Museum prints in installments J.’s analysis “A Few Lachian dances”; it consists of J.’s commentary from 1894 on František Pinoczy’s collection of Lachian dances;
17 March
J. conducts the premiere of his mixed chorus The wild Duck (1885); the concert is held at the BD in Brno, sung by the chorus of the Old Brno gymnasium;
by June
composes the cantata Our father, written for the Women’s Shelter in Brno, in which Zdenka Janáčková and daughter Olga were active;
15 June
premiere of cantata Our father on the stage of the NT Brno as a “tableaux vivants” inspired by a cycle of 8 paintings by Polish artist Józef Męcina-Krzesz. Five years later J. modified the cantata and gave it new instrumentation; in the same year (1906) it was presented in the Rudolfinum in Prague;
n.d.
in Volume no. 5 of “Slavonic melodies”, published in Ivančice (near Brno), 3 small compositions of J.’s cycle On the overgrown path appear; in their first edition they were intended for harmonium;
1902
February – 16 March
for Vesna and for the Friends of Art Club (founded in 1900 by Dušan Jurkovič and Antonín Tebich), J. gives a lecture at the Industrial Arts Museum in Brno on the contribution of Pavel Křížkovský;
22 March
travels to Russia along with daughter Olga, where she is to study Russian and prepare for her language test; this is Janáček’s second trip to Russia;
June-July
Janáček’s third trip to Russia, to accompany his wife Zdenka as she goes to care for Olga, who is ill. After 7 weeks Zdenka and Olga return home – to Hukvaldy. Janáček awaits their arrival in Warsaw;
n.d.
2 more small compositions of J.’s cycle On the overgrown path are published in vol. no. 6 of Slavonic melodies; in this edition the pieces are intended for harmonium;
1903
n.d.
produces a 36-page draft of a study on folk culture, for the upcoming Pan-Slavonic Exhibition in St. Petersburg; the work was never published;
26 February
death of the Janáčeks’ daughter Olga; the loss of their beloved daughter is a blow to the Janáčeks’ marital relationship;
18 March
finishes opera Jenůfa;
April
the NT in Prague rejects Jenůfa;
by 28 April
composes Elegy on the death of daughter Olga for tenor, mixed chorus, and piano, on a poem by M.N. Veverica; the work premiered posthumously on 20.12.1930 by the Brno Radio Orchestra conducted by B. Bakala;
21 May
attends Prague performance of Charpentier’s opera “Louisa”. This novel-opera would inspire J.’s opera Fate;
June, n.d.
takes part in pilgrimage to the village of Hostýn; there he observes the atmosphere of the pilgrimage for his intended opera “Angelic sonata”, to be based on a novel by Josef Merhaut. Later he dropped the concept, probably because Merhaut refused to write the libretto;
around 15 July
composes the liturgy Constitues – offertorium for male chorus and organ;
15 August – September
takes the cure in Luhačovice, where he resides in the director’s house; from this time he begins to visit Luhačovice regularly. Here he recuperates, takes holiday relaxation, and also finds a social and artistic environment that would become a significant factor in Janáček’s life. He usually traveled to Luhačovice alone, while his wife Zdenka would visit her parents in Vienna. In 1903 in Luhačovice he would meet Kamila Urválková, whose love story would supply the theme for J.’s next opera, Fate;
fall, n.d.
requests leave for health reasons from his teaching duties at the teachers’ institute;
November, n.d.
composes liturgical work Veni sancte spiritus;
December
begins composing the opera Fate on a verse libretto by Fedora Bartošová; he finishes the first version by June, 1905, and continues to revise it until the end of 1907, when he makes the opera available to the Vinohrady theater in Prague. The work premiered posthumously in 1934; as a radio performance and in concert in 1954; and as a stage production in 1958 at the NT in Brno;
1904
21 January
premiere of the opera Jenůfa at the NT in Brno, conducted by C .M. Hrazdira; Jenůfa – Marie Kabeláčová/ Růžena Kašparová, Kostelnička – Leopoldina Hanusová, Laca – Alois Staněk-Doubravský, Števa – Bohdan Procházka; the premiere was a great event for the Czech-speaking community in Brno; J. invited the Prague critic Emanuel Chvála (from the daily Politika) and Jan Branberger (daily Čas); the great success of the premiere was celebrated at the Besední dům; that same year the Brno opera performed the work on the road in the South Bohemian towns of Písek and České Budějovice;
Apri – May
trip to Warsaw, where he has applied for the position of director of the Warsaw conservatory. During the trip he learns of Dvořák’s death;
from 1.? May – 16.?5.
takes the cure at the spa in Luhačovice; resides at Vila Vlastimila;
n.d.
in Veselí nad Moravou, Janáček first hears the singing of the Moravian Teachers’ Choir (MTC) under choirmaster Ferdinand Vach – the future interpreters of some of his greatest works;
July
composed Zdrávas Maria; premiered on 8.10.1943 in Brno;
around 3 July
J. celebrates his 50th birthday in the company of friends at “Father Tebich’s Hut”, a wine cellar on Veveří St. in Brno, built in 1902 on an inspiration by Františk Mareš; attending were František Mareš, director of the Vesna Society; Cyril Metoděj Hrazdira, conductor of the premiere of Jenůfa; Antonín Průša, a student of J., teacher, and music critic for LN; composer and critic Jan Kunc; Max Koblížek, teacher at the organ school an teachers’ institute ; Karel Zdeňek Klíma, journalist and future chief editor of Lidové noviny; and theater critic Karel Elgart-Sokol.
by 22 September
finishes composing Moravian dances – piano adaptation of folk dances Čeladenský and Pilky; both pieces were published in spring, 1905, by A. Píša;
26 Sept.
requests retirement from men’s teachers’ institute;
October
retirement officially granted;
fall, n.d.
Gustav Mahler declines, with apologies (9. 12.), an invitation to a performance of Jenůfa, and asks J. to send him the piano score of the opera, with the German version of the text;
end of year
writes male chorus The garland, based on the melody and text of a folk song of the mountains around Bruntál. The chorus becomes part of the Four male-voice folk choruses; it was first performed by the Moravian Teachers’ Choir in Brno (19.10.1925); not clear exactly when The garland was written, but most likely during the period 1904-1906;
1905
n.d.
Artuš Rektorys becomes full-time editor of the Prague music journal Dalibor; during Rektorys’ time at Dalibor (1905-1910) the magazine would closely follow the music scene in Moravia, and especially Leoš Janáček. Artuš Rektorys became J.’s devoted admirer, advisor, and friend, who took pains to present his work to the Prague music community. They would exchange correspondence over a period of thirteen years from 1906 to 1919;
8 January
J. is elected chairman of the Working Committee for Czech National Song in Moravia and Silesia, with seat in Brno; the committee was officially established later the same year, on 27 September, and its mission was to initiate and coordinate research work assembling the largest and most complete possible collection of the wealth of folk songs from the lands of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. J. stated his research principles in the brochure “Collecting Folk Songs in Moravia and Silesia” (1906);
around 10 March
reads Gogol’s story “Taras Bulba” in the original;
9 April
performance of Jarní píseň at a concert of the Friends of Music Club in Brno; for this occasion J. revises the work, which dates back to 1898; the violin phenomenon Jelizaveta Ščedrovičová of St. Petersburg also appeared at the concert;
18 August – September
stays in Luhačovice at the Vila Vlastimila;
2 October
J. took part in a demonstration in reaction to the “Volkstag” which would inspire the piano sonata 1. X. 1905 – “From the street”, commemorating the bloody clash between the police and ethnic Czechs in Brno at demonstration demanding a Czech-language university. At the demonstration in front of the Besední dům, apprentice cabinet-maker František Pavlík is stabbed to death; Janáček’s statement of outrage premieres in January 1906;
26 November
the MTC under Ferdinand Vach sings two male choruses, If you only knew and The evening witch, which become parts of the cycle Four male-voice Moravian choruses; in Přerov; J. is present;
30 Nov.
on J.’s initiative, the general assembly of members of the Friends of Art Club (FAC) founds a music department at the FAC. The department began its activities in fall, 1904; J. became a member of the FAC in 1904, and was member of the music department for nine years, and served as its chairman in 1909-1911; the music department organized chamber concerts and thematic programs featuring the most recent music;
1906
by 27 January
finishes piano sonata I. X. 1905 – “From the street”, which premiered that year in the Besední dům in Brno; later, the work was performed in 1925 at the unveiling of a memorial plaque to František Pavlík, who was killed at the 1905 demonstration;
27 Jan.
the piano sonata I .X. 1905 – “From the street” premieres at a concert of the FAC in Brno; of the original three movements only two remain (as a copy of the autograph), entitled Foreboding and Death.
by 22 May
composes folk song arrangements for duet and piano, under the title Folk nocturne: Evening songs of the Slovak people of Rovné (premiere 1907). These 7 songs become part of 26 Folk ballads;
26 May
premiere of male chorus Your lovely eyes (1885) in Pilsen, sung by the Prague chorus Smetana, conducted by Josef Branžovský;
end of May
J. attends performance of Strauss’s “Salome”, staged as an opera by the German-speaking theater in Prague;
before 14 June
J. again takes up the study of folk duet – transcripts of folk nocturnes from Makov, Turzovka, and Vysoké. He attached great importance to these songs, which he had already heard in 1901-1902;
16 June
the NT in Brno asks J. to provide stage notes for the premiere of his new opera Fate; by the end of the year the material is ready, but preparations for the performance (scheduled for spring 1909) are disappointed in 1907 by J.’s decision to offer Fate to Prague’s Theater Na Vinohradech. After endless delays the Vinohrady Theater turned it down, and returned the material to Janáček in March 1914;
July, n.d.
rearranges the instrumental part of the cantata Our father, which he had composed in 1901; transcribes songs and dulcimer accompaniment in Ostrava region;
early August
transcribes songs and dulcimer accompaniment from around Radhošť Mountain;
August 7- 21
takes the cure in Luhačovice at the Villa Růžová;
August 19
J. travels again to Strání, where he meets Slovak bagpiper Úhelný. He probably transcribed Úhelný’s music as he played it in Lubina by Nové Mesto nad Váhom;
6 October
the NT in Brno reprises its staging of Jenůfa, which it performed in Ostrava before coming to Brno; con. by C.M. Hrazdira, dir. by Eduard Aschenbrenner, Jenůfa – Růžena Kašparová, Kostelnička – Leopoldina Hanusová, Laca – Alois Staněk-Doubravský, Števa – František Pokorný;
19 Oct.
music journal Dalibor prints the first part of J.’s manual for collectors of folk songs, “Collecting Folk Songs in Moravia and Silesia”; further installments came out over the course of the year;
by 24 Oct.
through Olga Vašková, manager of the Russian Circle and sister of poet Petr Bezruč, J. receives permission to set Bezruč’s poetry to music; he writes the male chorus Kantor Halfar on a Bezruč poem of the same title. It premieres five years later (Pilsen, 27. 5. 1911);
by Nov. 11
writes male chorus Maryčka Magdónova on a poem by Petr Bezruč; soon afterward J. revises the piece so throughly that there are basically two different existing versions;
14. Nov.
premiere of Jealousy in Prague, performed by the Czech Philharmonic with František Neumann conducting, and J. in attendance;
18 Nov.
premiere of cantata Our father (revision of July 1906 version) performed by the Prague choir Hlahol, conducted by A. Piskáček; J. attends the premiere;
December
writes draft for a new one-act comic opera “Mrs. Mintmeister”, after a play of the same name by Ladislav Stroupežnický. It never got farther than the outline for scene one, and J. never finished it;
6 Dec.
the NT in Brno performs the premiere of “Jolka”, an opera by Russian modernist Vladimír Ivanovič Rebikov. J. may have heard the opera; he had heard of it passively, at least; Rebikov was brought to J’s attention by his student Jan Kunc. At the beginning of the next year J. comments on Rebikov’s harmonic innovation in his study Modern Harmonic Music;
1907
n.d.
J. writes the study Modern Harmonic Music, published in the journal Hlídka 1907;
5 – 29 January
drafts one scene from an intended opera “Anna Karenina” after the Tolstoy novel; he never continued the work;
by 10 Jan.
finishes revision of Act 2 of Jenůfa; he goes over the whole opera by the end of February 1908, and with these changes it is published through the FAC as a piano score;
3 February
premiere of the male chorus The mosquitoes’ wedding (1906) from the Four Moravian male-voice choruses; performed in Vyškov by the MTC, conducted by Ferdinand Vach;
by 21 March
the second version is written of the male chorus Maryčka Magdónova on a poem of the same name by Petr Bezruč; it was first performed by the MTC under Ferdinand Vach in Prostějov on 12.4.1908;
1 June, ?
the organ school, located until now in a building at the corner of Jakubská and Česká Streets, now gets a new building on Giskrova, today Kounicova; the Villa of Mr. Chleborád was bought in 1906 by the Union for the Elevation of Religious Music in Moravia, for the purpose of housing the organ school; from the summer of 1907 this building also housed the music department of the Friends of Art Club (FAC);
holidays
collecting folk songs and music in the Jablunkov region;
19 Aug. – 1. Sept.
takes the cure in Luhačovice, resides in the Jan House;
until November finishes revisions and changes in the story of Fate, which were requested by the Theater Na Vinohradech in Prague; first performances by radio (Brno 1934), in concert (Brno 1954), and on stage in 1958 by the NT in Brno;
5 December
Folk nocturnes – Evening songs of the Slovak people of Rovné (1906) premieres at a concert of the Friends of Art Club in Brno;
1908
n.d.
works on arrangements of folk songs for voice and piano; during the period 1908-1912 he writes Five Moravian dances, Four ballads, and Two ballads;
23 February
first performance of male chorus Parting from the cycle Four Moravian male-voice choruses at a concert of the BB, conducted by Rudolf Reissig;
18 March
The Friends of Art Club publish the piano score to the opera Jenůfa; its dedication reads “In memory of Olga Janáčková”; it was issued as a bonus to members of the club in 1907;
27 March
begins composing opera Mr. Brouček’s excursion to the Moon; he would finish the opera in 1916;
12 April
in Prostějov, the MTC under Ferdinand Vach perform the premiere of male chorus Maryčka Magdónova (1907 version), which it then took on concert tour to Paris (27. 4 at the Theatre du Chatelet);
April 21
J. writes Z denka that he has just meet Fr. Lehár im Urbánek publishing;
May-June
3 more compositions are written for the piano cycle On the overgrown path, 1st series;
August 15
the organ school is moved definitvely to its own building; the building was used as a school but also as a venue for chamber concerts and sonata recitals, which were held in the school’s concert hall; Janáček’s works were seldom played at these concerts;
16 August – Sept. before 25
in Luhačovice, staying at the Jan House; this time his treatment lasts 3-4 weeks; he meets vokalist Marie Calma.-Veselá, second wife of Dr, František Veslý; both of them share credit for the acceptance by the NT in Prague of Jenůfa;
December
composes Piano trio based on Tolstoy’s “Kreutzer Sonata”; the work was first performed in its entirety on 2. 4.1909), after which J. made use of the material in his 1st string quartet, also inspired by the same literary work;
1909
n.d.
begins longtime collaboration with Pavel Váša, which continues for the rest of J.’s life. It resulted in “Moravian love songs”, pub. 1930-1936;
n.d.
J. corresponds by letter with Jan Branberger about a possible concert of Debussy’s works of song in Brno; J’s efforts to get the works of Claude Debussy played in Brno reflected his first deep fascination with French Impressionism;
2 April
the FAC organizes an evening in celebration of the 80th birthday of author Leo Tolstoy, featuring the first performance of J.’s Piano trio; the composition has not survived in the form of a piano trio;
4 March
at the Besední dům, J. conducts a concert of religious music including Gounodov’s oratorium Mors et vita; the concert is organized as a concert by graduates of the organ school, with the orchestral part played by the military band of the 8th Infantry Regiment, with vocal by Marie Calma-Veselá (standing in for the indisposed R. Maturová) under the baton of J;
July 12 – 28
he takes the cure at the sanatorium in Tišnov; the rigorous treatment on results in rapid loss of body weight, which then brings heart seizures;
August
J. stavs in spa Teplice nad Bečvou;
4-11 September
stays at the Director’s House in Luhačovice;
by 26 Sept.
completes first parts of Mr Brouček’s excursion to the Moon (Act 1, Scene 1);
by December
writes male chorus The seventy thousand after a poem of the same title by Petr Bezruč; J. hears the work sung at a rehearsal of the MTC (spring 1910); in July 1912 he revisits the work, and the changed version is presented as a first performance on 25 March 1914 in Benešov near Prague with the MTC under František Spilka;
by 10 Dec.
finishes folk song arrangements for voice and piano, sung in Modřice near Brno by folk vocalist Eva Gabel of Velká Slatina, in Slovakia; Six folksongs sung by Gabel Eva; the songs were first performed on 5 March 1911 at the organ school;
1910
10 February
finishes Fairy tale for cello and piano – first version (prem. 13. 3. 1910); the composition underwent several subsequent revisions (1912, 1923);
from Feb.
starts composing Act 1, scene 2, of Mr Brouček’s excursion to the Moon; work on this part continues until April of the following year;
13 March
premiere of Fairy tale for cello and piano (first version) at the organ school during a sonata recital;
2 July
moves from Old Brno to a garden house behind the organ school, where he lives for the rest of his life;
18 Jul.-17 Aug.
treatment at the carbonate spa in Teplice near Hranice; he then departs for Hukvaldy;
n.d.
J.’s Presto for cello and piano is written about this time, consisting of a general draft of a composition for two instruments, perhaps a draft of a second movement of Fairy tale for cello and piano); first performance of Presto on 15. 6. 1948 in Brno; however, the work might be of a later date;
1911
31 January
new staging of Jenůfa at the NT Brno; the new version contains revisions published in the piano score of 1908; conducted by Rudolf Pavlata, directed by Josef Malý; Jenůfa – Marie Angrová, Kostelnička – Leopolda Svobodová-Hanusová, Laca – Václav Pospišil, Števa – Alois Fiala;
by 19 February
writes the cantata Čarták on the Soláň (on a lyrics by Max Kunert), performed the next year by the Orlice Choir in Prostějov, to whom the cantata is dedicated;
5 March
premiere of Six songs sung by Gabel Eva at the organ school during the sonata recital hours;
April
finishes Act 1, scene 2 of Mr. Brouček’s excursion to the Moon;
the first comprehensive study of Janáček’s work is published in the music journal Hudební revue, written by J.’s scholar Jan Kunc;
27 May
premiere of the male chorus Kantor Halfar (1906) by the Smetana Chorale Association;
n.d.
publishes “Complete Handbook of Harmonics”;
5 June
Moravian Slovakia Day is held in Luhačovice with the participation of J.; the MTC sings J.’s chorus Maryčka Magdónova; first of J.’s works to be performed in Luhačovice;
Augus10 – 27 t –
spa treatment in Luhačovice, stays in Jestřabí;
September
finishes 5 more compositions from the cycle On the overgrown path, 1st and 2nd series;
by December
writes arrangement of folk song Come, little one, let’s go!, published in Lidové noviny (LN) on 23.12.1911.
1912
17 February
LN publishes J.’s arrangement of folk song “Krajcpolka” with piano accompaniment;
25 Feb.
first performance of the cantata Amarus in its entirety at the Besední dům (BD) in Brno, orchestra conducted by Ferdinand Vach, with the participation of members of Vienna’s Tonkünstlerverein and the Moravian Teachers’ Mixed Choir;
23 March
the Orlice Choir in Prostějov, conducted by V. Steinmann, perform the premiere of the cantata Čarták on the Soláň (1911);
by 28 March
revises Fairy tale for cello and piano as a composition in four movements; the revised version first performed later the same year in Vyškov;
by 21 April
writes piano cycle In the mist, which premiered at the end of the following year (7.12.1913) in Kroměříž, at a concert organized by the society Moravan;
from June
starts on Act 2 of Mr. Brouček’s excursion to the Moon; finishing in February the next year;
by 5 June
revises male chorus The Seventy Thousand;
holiday travels
over the Alps to the Croatian port of Rjeka and on to Crikvenice; excursion to isle of Krk, then Pulja, Trieste, Lubjlanja, and the lake resort of Bled;
21- early September
treatment in Luhačovice, at the Augustinian House;
22 September
revised version of Fairy tale for cello and piano performed in Vyškov;
28 November
he becomes a member by correspondence of the Czech Academy of Sciences;
1913
by February
finishes Act 2 of Mr. Brouček’s excursion to the Moon, and begins working on a third version of Fairy tales for a scheduled performance in Prague, a performance which never takes place;
by 28 April
finishes ballad The fiddler’s child for orchestra, on a theme from a poem by Svatopluk Čech; he began writing the piece in late 1912 after the Prague performance of Amarus (October 1912); after rehearsal in March 1914 he makes changes in the score; the first performance was held on 14.11.1917 in Prague by the Czech Philharmonic under conductor O. Ostrčil;
July 25 – August 6
takes the cure in Karlsbad, at the Mšeno;
10 –28 August
is taken to the hospital in Roudnice with erysipelas;
7 December
premiere of piano cycle In the mist; in Kroměříž; J. was not in attendance. The work was published at the end of the year by the Friends of Art Club as a NewYear’s bonus for 1913;
end of year
begins composing the cantata The Eternal Gospel on a lyrics by Jaroslav Vrchlický; he finishes the work in spring, 1914 (premiere 5.2.1917 in Prague by Hlahol choir, dir. by J. Křička);
1914
24 January
Janáček’s piano cycle In the mist is performed at the 3rd symphony concert hall of the organ school in Lužánky Park, Brno; J. was in attendance;
14 March
the Prague theater Na Vinohradech returns J.’s opera Fate without staging it;
25. Mar.
premiere of the male chorus The Seventy Thousand on the poem by Petr Bezruč, performed by the Prague Teacher´s Choir, conducted by František Spilka; J. is present for the concert in Benešov u Prahy, and is congratulated and praised by Otakar Ostrčil, who went on to become one the first in Prague to play the works of Janáček (premieres of The fiddler’s child, The excursions of Mr. Brouček);
11 May
finishes composing cantata The Eternal Gospel, on a lyrics by Jaroslav Vrchlický; first performance held three years later in Prague (5.2.1917);
before 21 May
begins to compose Sonata for violin and piano; it is certain that what is now its 2nd movement, entitled Balada, was already finished at the time; the entire first version was scheduled to be performed in October 1915, but never was; J. revised it several times before its publication (1922);
3 July
J.’s celebrates his sixtieth birthday, which goes unnoticed by the public; only the FAC issues the score of The fiddler’s child, and the organ school has its own in-house celebration;
after 15 July
J. is in Hukvaldy, from which he plans to travel again to Crikvenice; his travel plans are disrupted by the outbreak of WW I (28.7.1914);
3 – 17 (?) September
treatment at spa in Luhačovice, Villa Vlastimila;
n.d.
writes male chorus The Eiderdown on a text from folk poetry; it becomes part of cycle under the title Four male-voice choruses; published in 1923 (HM Prague). It premiered on 17. 10. 1925, sung by the MTC under Ferdinand Vach in Brno;
1915
n.d.
organ school studies Liszt’s “Mass in C minor”, and sings it at churches in Brno (St. Tomáš’s, and in Zábrdovice) and elsewhere. Conducted by Prof. Holub, with Janáček on the organ;
by 22 January
work on the first version of Taras Bulba;
9 March
the Russian Circle in Brno, of which J. is among the founders, is banned by the police; it is erased from the register of organizations on 19 May;
7 July
finishes first revision of Taras Bulba (prem. 4.10.1921) in Brno;
end onf July
J. stays with Zdenka in Pustevny
August 17 – ?
is treated at the spa in Bohdaneč; he would repeat the health stay in 1916 and 1917; Dr. Veselý was the head doctor; he and his wife Marie Calma endeavored to convince librettist Karel Šípek and director of the Prague NT Gustav Schmoranz, who were also staying at the spa, to accept on Janáček’s Jenůfa. Around the end of the year they finally achieved success;
from October
revises opera Mr. Brouček’s excursion to the Moon; first performance is held at the NT in Brno on 15. 5. 1926;
8 December
Mrs. Calma-Veselá, convinces conductor Kovařovic to listen to excerpts from Jenůfa; she sings him Jenůfa’s part, and some parts sung by the character Kostelnička; Kovařovic decided to accept the opera for staging and performance by the NT in Prague, on the condition that J. agree to some necessary changes; J. allows this;
19 December
J. sends a score of Jenůfa to head of the National Theater in Prague, Karel Kovařovic;
end of Dec.
meets with Kovařovic at the Prague performance of Smetana’s “Libuše” (conducted by Kovařovic), where the two get along very well; J. finds acceptance for his opera on the Prague opera scene;
1916
January – 12 February
writes the female choruses Songs of Hradčany (prem. 25. 11. 1918), Kašpar Rucký (prem. 6. 4. 1921) on a lyrics by František Serafinský Procházka, and The wolf-tracks on a lyrics by Jaroslav Vrchlický (prem. 23. 7. 1916);
16 – 19 Jan.
writes Detvan brigand songs, arrangements of bandits’ ballads for voice and piano in; these become part of the 26 folk ballads;
26 May
premiere of Jenůfa (with minor adaptations and instrumental changes by Karel Kovařovic) at the National Theater in Prague; conducted by Kovařovic, directed by Robert Polák, with Gabriela Horvátová as Kostelnička and Kamila Ungrová as Jenůfa; this is Janáček’s long-dreamed-of artistic triumph in Prague; J. begins a two-year relationship with G. Horvatová;
17 July – 13 August
at the Luhačovice spa, staying at the villa Vlastimila;
23.7.
while J. is at the spa, the premiere is held of the chorus The wolf-tracks (1916), sung by the Moravian Women Teachers’ Choir under Ferdinand Vach; J. is visited by Gabriela Horvatová (24. 7.);
August
named honorary citizen of his home village of Hukvaldy;
18 Aug.
performance of female chorus The wolf-tracks (1916) in Nová Paka, performed by Moravian Women Teachers’ Choir under Ferdinand Vach; this date was long believed to have been the premiere;
September
J. works on the first sketches of an opera to be called The living dead. The opera was never finished;
17 Sept.
the Theater of Associated Towns of Eastern Bohemia stage the premiere of Jenůfa in Prostějov; that same year the performance travels to Olomouc, Náchod, and Hradec Králové;
10 October
the Brno opera stages Jenůfa using Kovařovic’s adaptation; conducted by Karel Komarov, directed by Josef Winkler;
16 Oct.
J. meets in Prague with Richard Strauss, who conducted a concert of the Czech Philharmonic performing works by himself and Josef Suk. Strauss attended the Prague staging of Jenůfa, especially praising the 3rd act; J. cared very much for his good opinion;
25 Oct.
composes an Epilogue to Mr. Brouček’s excursion to the Moon; not finished until 29 March of the following year;
28 November
first letter from Max Brod to Janáček, inviting him to visit Brod in Prague. J. is flattered by Brod’s exhaustive analysis of Jenůfa published in the Berlin journal Schaubühne on 16.11. of that year; thus begins J.’s long professional and personal relationship with influential theater critic, dramatist, and translator Max Brod, who greatly aided J. in disseminating his work abroad, providing advice and inspiration in selecting new themes for the opera, and translated his operatic librettos and vocal texts;
26 December
first performance of The Golden Lane from the cycle Songs of Hradčany, Prague, Smetana Hall, by the Moravian Women Teacher’s Choir under Ferdinand Vach; the Songs of Hradčany cycle would premiere in its entirety only seven years later (1 May 1923);
1917
5 February
premiere of cantata The Eternal Gospel (1914) sung by the Prague chorus Hlahol, conducted by Jaroslav Křička, with J. in attendance;
4 March
Emil Herzka, director of Vienna publisher Universal-Edition, hears the Prague performance by the National Theater of Jenůfa and determines to publish it. The performance is also attended by conductor of the Vienna Court Opera Hugo Reichenberger, who stages the opera two years later in Vienna;
29 Mar.
finishes Epilogue to Mr. Brouček’s excursion to the Moon;
May – December
composes Mr. Brouček’s excursion to the XVth century. The two “Excursions” are combined into a single two-part opera entitled The excursions of Mr. Brouček, which premieres in that form at the NT in Prague on 23.4.1920, directed by Gustav Schmoranz and conducted by Otakar Ostrčil;
3 – 29 July
during his summer stay in Luhačovice (Villa Vlastimila) J. meets Kamila Stösslová (staying at the Žofín house); their passing acquaintance soon develops into a friendship between the Janáček and Stössl families, which is cultivated and maintained until 1925; eventually J. begins traveling alone to see Kamila in Písek in southern Bohemia; for J., the friendship between two persons of widely differing age became a powerful emotional relationship that lasted for the rest of J.’s life;
holidays
started writing The diary of one who disappeared, a song cycle with piano accompaniment, on a text published anonymously in LN (the identity of its author, Josef Kalda, remained a mystery until 1997); J. finishes the work in 1919; it was revised before its first performance on 18. 4. 1921 at the Reduta in Brno;
17, 18 October
Janáček’s overture Jealousy played at a concert of the BB in Brno by the orchestra of the Prague NT, conducted by Karel Kovařovic. It was the first performance of one of J.’s works at the BB since J.’s falling out with and departure from that organization and its music school, with which J. had maintained no ties in the meantime;
14 November
premiere of The fiddler’s child (1913), a ballad for orchestra, in Prague by the Czech Philharmonic, conducted by O. Ostrčil; attended by J.;
12 December
J. writes the first of four letters to Ema Destinnová, the world-famous vocalist, who had shown interest in the role of J.’s Jenůfa. Ema Destinnová’s last letter, addressed to L.J., dates from December 1918; the singer expressed her intention to study the role, but she never did;
1918
n.d.
The Friends of Art Club challenge two Brno artists (one of them being Emil Hlavica) to a competition to create the best portrait of L.J. The organizers choose Emil Hlavica, who that same year modeled a relief. Hlavica created a similar plaque in 1925 for J.’s friends, bearing the date 1926;
January, n.d.
for a scheduled performance of Jenůfa at the Vienna Court Opera, articles about Janáček appear in the German-language music journals and in the press; Brno dramatist and theater dramaturge Guido Glück writes a general portrait of Janáček; the article appeared in the January edition of Merker, and in Leipzig’s Musikpedagogische Zeitungen;
15 – 25 Jan.
writes Silesian songs, an arrangement of folk songs for voice and piano from a collection by Helena Salichová; the premiere was held a year later in Prague (7. 4. 1919);
January – May
last revision of opera-bilogy The excursions of Mr. Brouček;
16 January
Jenůfa is performed by the Court Opera in Vienna, with Maria Jeritza as Jenůfa, Lucie Weidt as Kostelnička; cond. Hugo Reichenberger, directed by Cyril von Wymetal. J. was present at the premiere and at many of the rehearsals; to the premiere itself he invited the daily and professional press and personal friends, among them the Stössls. The success of the Vienna premiere led to a subsequent series of performances at opera venues abroad; during J.’s life the opera would be shown in Zagreb (1920), Lubljana (1922), Frankfurt am Main (1923), Berlin, Freiburg, Lubljana, New York, and Aachen (1924), Darmstadt, Gera, Nuremburg, Augsburg, Bremen, Coburg, Basel, Wroclaw, Osnabrück, and Magdeburg (1925), Altenburg, Wiesbaden, Trier, Hamburg, Poznan, Ulm, Lvov, Essen, Wiemar, Erfurt, Brauschweig, Kaliningrad, Düsseldorf, Gotta, Karlsruhe, Gdansk, Greifswald, Hagen, Manheim (1926), Antwerp, Rostock, Saarbrücken, Zagreb, Plauen, Saská Kamenice, Schwerin, Bremerhaven, Stetin, Bamberg (1927), Leipzig, Belgrade, Mönchengladbach, Freiburg, Helsinki, Würzburg, Krefeld, and Dortmund (1928);
– Universal Edition in Vienna publishes Jenůfa in print, with German translation by Max Brod; from this time the opera is known abroad as Jenůfa instead of its Czech title Její pastorkyňa;
29 March
finishes rhapsody for orchestra Taras Bulba, the first version of which dates from 1915; the premiere was held in Brno, with František Neumann conducting the orchestra of the NT (9. 10. 1921);
8 -27 July
Luhačovice, Augustinian House; passing visits with the Stössls;
n.d.
revisits his first opera Šárka, and produces final version by summer 1919; minor modifications would continue until its premiere in 1925;
3-9 September
J. stays in Bhodaneč spa;
22, 23 Sept.
the Czech Philharmonic, conducted by L.V. Čelanský, perform the orchestral ballad The fiddler’s child (1913); the concert is seen as a tribute from Prague, on J.’s home turf;
15-18 Nov.
composes male chorus The Czech Legion on the text of a poem by Antonín Horák; it was sung for the first time by the Moravian Teachers’ Choir under Ferdinand Vach in Kroměříž on 26. 2. 1920;
16 Nov.
the opera in Cologne, Germany, presents J.’s opera Jenůfa, under conductor Otto Klemperer, who becomes one of the first foreign conductors to perform J.’s music to the composer’s great satisfaction;
16. December
J. was awarded the annual Czech Academy award for his fire-work;
1919
by 10 January
extensive revision of first opera Šárka (1888); from 1918 J.’s student Osvald Chlubna took part in the modifications and instrumentation of the 3rd act; J. would alter the opera for the last time in 1925;
20 January
in Brno, J. is named chairman of the newly-created Moravian-Silesian Committee at the Institute for Folk Song in the Czechoslovak Republic;
March
J. writes to Otakar Ševčík in Písek offering him the position of professor at the conservatory’s masters’ school; in the end the plan fell through, however. Kamila Stösslová serves as something of a go-between, having around that time moved from Přerov (Moravia) to Písek (south Bohemia);
26 April
first meet J. with president T.G. Masaryk
6 – 27 July
Luhačovice, Augustinian House;
28 August
The Czech-language theater begins regular activities in the building of the municipal theater (which had been used by the German-language theater until the independence of Czechoslovakia) with a new staging of Jenůfa, directed by R. Walter, under the baton of František Neumann: Jenůfa-Božena Snopková, Kostelnička-Maria Veselá, Laca-Pavel Jeral, Števa-Valentin Šindler;
25 September
named temporary professor of composition at the masters’ classes of the conservatory of music in Prague, Brno branch; by government approval, the organ school along with the music school of the BB are combined to create a music conservatory;
30 Sept.
for the opening of the Brno conservatory, J. writes the feuilleton “Words of Introduction at the Opening of the Conservatory of Music in Brno”, published on 7.10. in Lidové noviny;
n.d.
the Young Moravian Composers’ Club is founded in Brno, on the initiative of V. Helfert, V. Petrželka, and V. Kaprál; three years later it would change its name to the Moravian Composers’ Club; L.J. is elected its first chairman;
by 11 Nov.
J. completes his Diary of one who disappeared, which he had begun in August 1917;
Christmas
during his visit to Prague (where he stayed mostly in the Smíchov quarter, at the pension “U Karla IV”) he meets with the Stössls, with whom he attends a performance of Jenůfa (28.12) at the National Theater;
1920
from 5 January
composes the opera Káťa Kabanová, writing his own libretto, based on Ostrovský’s play “The Storm”. He finishes and revises the opera by December 1921 (prem. 23.11.1921 at the NT in Brno);
16 March
from publisher Universal Edition in Vienna, J. orders Schönberg’s “Harmonielehre”, which he studies until 16 April of that year; J. had known of Schönberg and his expressionistic stance since at least 1918;
by 21 March
composed symphonic poem The ballad of Blaník on the theme of a poem by Jaroslav Vrchlický; the work is dedicated to “the liberator,” first president of Czechoslovakia Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk;
21 March
matinee at the Brno conservatory, with František Neumann conducting the orchestra of the NT Brno in The ballad of Blaník; the concert celebrates the 70th birthday of the founder of the Czechoslovak state Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk;
22 March
the conservatory is nationalized by the Czechoslovak state; Jan Kunc is named director of the institute;
21 April
Dr. Desiderius, nom de plume Hugo Boettinger, draws the first of a number of portraits – caricatures of L.J.; Boettinger’s last portrait from 1927 is dedicated by L.J. to vocalist Gabriela Horvátová on 17.3.1928;
23 April
premiere of The excursions of Mr. Brouček in the NT Prague; J. present;
12 June – 2 August
takes the cure in Luhačovice, staying at the Augustinian House; Otakar Ostrčil, colleague and friend of J. since 1914, is in Luhačovice at the same time. Ostrčil would conduct the world premiere of The excursions of Mr. Brouček, and the first performance in Prague of The cunning little vixen. The two continue to meet at Luhačovice over the following years;
August
revision of cantata Čarták on the Solán on a text by M. Kunert; the cantata was written in 1911; a new revision of 1920 would be first performed in Brno on 19.10.1924;
15 September
named full professor at masters’ school of the state music conservatory in Prague, Brno branch; in 1921 he undertakes a series of 5 lectures for the conservatory on composition and composers. Two years later he would have another lecture on “Naturalism in Composition”;
6 October
relieved of duties as the director of the Brno conservatory;
1921
n.d.
starts composing The cunning little vixen on his own libretto, based on the “novel” by Rudolf Těsnohlídek; the story was inspired by the drawings of Stanislav Lolek (J. had become acquainted with Lolek’s work at an exhibition at Prague’s Rudolfinum in October 1910); the story came out in installments in the daily newspaper Lidové noviny, including pictures, which were an integral part of the story; J. worked on the libretto until mid-1922, and finished the opera at the end of 1923;
23 January
hears Debussy’s “La Mer” as played by the Šak Philharmonic; he had been interested in the composition since 1910, when it was performed by the Czech Philharmonic (unknown whether he attended it or not); J.’s analysis of the composition, dated 1921, still survives;
6 April
premiere of female chorus Kašpar Rucký (1916) on a lyrics by František Serafínský Procházka; premiere in Prague sung by the Prague Teachers’ Choir, conducted by Method Doležil;
18 April
premiere of The diary of one who disappeared (1917-1919) with Břetislav Bakala on the piano; the part of Janíček was sung by K. Zavřel, Zefka by L. Kvapilová-Kudlačková; J. is in attendance;
June 1921
hears a lecture by Rabindranath Tagore in Prague; J. would base his chorus The wandering madman (1922) on the text of Tagore’s poem;
early July
visits mountains of the High Tatras, visits Štrbské pleso, Mengušovská Valley, the valley of the Mlýnice, Popradské Lake, the Kolbašské waterfalls, and Javorina; after his travels in Slovakia he writes the feuilleton “From the High Tatras”, published in Lidové noviny on 18.7.;
from 17 July – August
takes treatment at Luhačovice spa, Augustinian House; meets with Kamila Stösslová, who is also taking the cure there together with her female cousin;
16 September
attends lecture by Czechoslovak president T.G. Masaryk at the auditorium of the Czech Technical College in Brno, where J. jots down Masayk’s melodies of speech; the content of the speech and the speech melodies themselves provide the framework for three studies which J. entitles “Triptychon”, which went unpublished as a trio during J.’s life; J. did not meet with TGM during the president’s visit;
4 October
premiere of Taras Bulba (1915-1918), Brno, orchestra of the NT in Brno, conducted by František Neumann; J. in attendance;
23 November
original premiere Káťa Kabanová (1920-1921) at the NT in Brno, conducted by František Neumann, directed by Vladimír Marek, stage artist Vladimír Hrska. Marie Veselá played the role of Káťa, Marie Hladíková played Kabanicha, with Karel Zavřel as Boris;
December
J. is awarded the Czech Academy prize for his opera The excursions of Mr. Brouček;
31 Dec.
buys a house in his home village of Hukvaldy that J. would enjoy for the rest of his life as a place of creativity and relaxation. The house, which he bought from his widowed sister-in-law, he gradually altered, modernized, and refurnished; the house, newly-restored, is today the Leoš Janáček Memorial in Hukvaldy;
1922
1 January
completes the selection of 15 folk songs and their adaptation for piano under the general appellation Moravian folk songs, and a folk song The oaks not included in the collection;
10 January
in a letter to Max Brod, J. tells of his work on Moravian folk songs, and his study of Einstein’s theory of relativity;
22 March
J. asks the ministry to fund the purchase of a Hipp Chronoscope, with which he intends to precisely measure the duration of his collected melodies of speech; the data on time duration that begin to accompany his specimen entries show that he received, and used, the instrument;
20 April
J.’s Violin sonata appears in print in the publishing house Hudební matice; he had begun composing it back in 1914;
-Mrs. Rosa Newmarch came to Brno to visit J., and attended Káťa Kabanová and Jenůfa; Rosa Newmarch encounters J.’s art in Prague in 1919; in 1922 in London’s The Slavonic Review she publishes an article about Janáček and Moravian musical drama; four years later she organizes J.’s trip to England, introduces him to society; thanks to her involvement J.’s works were warmly received; to her J. dedicates the first edition of his Sinfonietta (Universal Edition);
24 April
premiere of a revised Violin sonata, performed in Brno at a concert of the Moravian Composers’ Club (MCC); František Kudláček – violin, J. Kvapil – piano;
3 – 24 July
visits Luhačovice, Augustinian House; during his stay he meets painter Alfons Mucha; there is a photo (1922) of the two great Moravians together; J. viewed Mucha’s “Slavonic Epopee” at the Municipal House in Prague in May 1919;
July – 12 November
composes male chorus The wandering madman, on a text by Bengalese poet Rabindranath Tagore, whose lecture in June 1921 J. had attended, and recorded the melodies in Tagore’s speech;
17 September
the Moravian Composer’s Club is officially established, with J. as its chairman;
n.d.
Danish tenor Mischa Léon studies the Czech text of The diary of one who disappeared under J.’s guidance, which he subsequently performed in the Czech language in London (27.10) and later in Paris;
30 November
the NT in Prague stages the opera Káťa Kabanová; con. O. Ostrčil, dir. Robert Polák, scene J. M. Gottlieb, Káťa-Kamila Ungrová, Kabanicha-Marie Rejholcová, Boris-Miroslav Jeník; on the occasion of the premiere J. requested an audience with President Masaryk on 28 November, to inform him of the poor quality of higher music education in composition; the audience was never held;
6 December
J. was awarded the Czech Academy award for Káťa Kabanová and The Diary of One who Disappeeared;
8 December
in Cologne, Germany, the first staging abroad of Káťa Kabanová; con. O. Klemperer, dir. Felix Dahn, des. Rudolf Hraby;
13 December
J. attends Hába’s Overture for orchestra – J.’s first encounter with Hába’s micro-interval music;
1923
n.d.
the publisher Orbis issues Max Brod’s book “Sternenhimmel”, 8 chapters of which are devoted to L.J.;
February – March
revises Fairy tale for cello and piano; the definitive version for print and performance contains three movements. The work was composed in 1910 and revised for four movements in 1912;
21 March
premiere of revised, 3-movement version of Fairy tale for cello and piano, in Prague, at the Mozarteum;
23 March
the NT in Bratislava stages Káťa Kabanová, con. Milan Zuna, dir. Josef Munclinger; J. attends the Bratislava premiere;
11 May
premiere of entire cycle of female choruses Songs of Hradčany, text by František S. Procházka; performed in Prague by the Prague Teachers’ Choir led by Method Doležil;
June
begins work on symphony The Danube, last working on it in 1925; he never finished;
holidays, n.d.
writes the feuilleton “Passpartout”, in which J. describes his trip to the recently-discovered Demänov Caves in Slovakia, published in Liptovský kras in 1923, and by the Commission for the Promotion of the Demänov Caves; today, one of the cave’s underground stalactites is named Janáček after the composer;
2-7 August
J. attends the 2nd festival of the International Society for Contemporary Music, in Salzburg, where his Violin sonata is performed; there he meets Alois Hába;
16 Aug. – 1 September
at the spa in Luhačovice, Augustinian House;
October, n.d.
Sir Henry Wood studies and performs The fiddler’s child in London;
by 10 October
finishes work on the opera The cunning little vixen, which he had started in January 1922; premiere 6. 11. 1924 in Brno, con. František Neumann, dir. by Ota Zítek;
30 Oct. – 7 November
writes 1st string quartet “after Tolstoy’s Kreutzer Sonata”, (prem. 7.10.1924 by the Czech Quartet);
from 11 November
starts working on opera The Makropulos affair on his own libretto, based on a play of the same title by Karel Čapek; he works on the opera until the end of 1925; premiere at the NT in Brno, 18. 12. 1926;
1924
1924
the year of Janáček’s seventieth birthday, accompanied by widespread publicity for J. and his works, high artistic and social honors, and extensive presentation of his works both at home and abroad; two biographies are published, on which J. assisted and provided a list of his works:
– Max Brod: Leoš Janáček. Život a dílo (Life and works);
– Adolf Veselý: Leoš Janáček. Pohled do života i díla (An Insight into his Life and Works) (considered to be Janáček’s “autobiography”); J.’s portrait by Jaroslv Král was made for this publication, where it first appeared;
beginning of year
the journal Listy Hudební matice puts out a double issue devoted entirely to L.J.;
18 January
the Moravian-Silesian Theatre in Ostrava stages Káťa Kabánová (con. E. Bastl., dir. Jan Kühn, des. J. Dušek) with J. in attendance; first performance of this opera in Ostrava;
17 March
performance of Jenůfa in Berlin with J. attending; conductor Erich Kleiber, director K. Holy, scene Emil Pirchan; Jenůfa – Zinajda Jurjevskaja, Kostelnička – M. Arndt-Ober. The Berlin premiere was a great social and artistic success, which received extraordinary attention in the press and elsewhere; for example, a cigar carrying the brand name “Jenůfa” appeared around this time in Berlin;
by 19 May
writes March of the Bluecoats, printed in the journal Hudební besídka 1924; the work became part of the 3rd movement of the sextet Youth;
from 27 June
J.’s first visit to Kamila Stösslová in Písek. From this time on the two begin to meet more often in Prague, Písek, Brno, and in 1927 in Luhačovice; the volume of their mutual correspondence also increases, especially from J.; during the time of their relationship J. wrote Kamila Stösslová nearly 730 letters;
13 July
an interview by Olin Downes with L.J. is published in the New York Times for Janáček’s 70th birthday. The American music critic put together the interview materials during his June visit to Czechoslovakia and a meeting with L.J. in Brno;
by 24 July
composes wind sextet Youth ; premiere on 21.10. of that year at the Besední dům with J. in attendance;
July
spends the time around his seventieth birthday in seclusion in Hukvaldy; he breaks his stay only to be present at a performance of Jenůfa by the Brno NT at Prague’s Vinohrady Theatre (9.7.); President T.G. Masaryk was scheduled to attend, but canceled due to illness;
15-30 August
takes the cure in Luhačovice, at the Augustinian House; during his stay he meets Mrs. Zdena Heydušková, daughter of Bedřich Smetana, and takes down the melodies of her speech, which he reproduces in the feuilleton “Smetana’s daughter” (printed 3.10. that year in LN);
13 Sept.
a lecture is given at the Besední dům in Brno by Bengalese poet Santos Hazra; J. attends and, impressed by the poet’s recitation, writes the feuilleton “On the Right Track”, printed in LN on 7. 4. 1925;
16 Sept.
for J.’s jubilee year, the Brno opera stages Káťa Kabanová, con. František Neumann, dir. O. Zítek, des. A. Provazník; J. attends the premiere;
19 Sept.
premiere of revised version (1920) of Čarták on the Soláň, NT Brno, Beseda brněnská, conducted by Jaroslav Kvapil;
21 September
the Moravian Teachers’ Choir, conducted by Ferdinand Vach, perform the premiere of the male chorus The wandering madman in Rosice u Brna; it is performed in Brno (11.10.) and Prague (8. 12.) that same year;
24 Sept.
Janáček receives an award from Ministry of Education for his rhapsody for orchestra Taras Bulba;
17 October
premiere of 1st string quartet, Prague, Czech Quartet, J. present;
21 October
J. attend the premiere of Youth, performed by professors of Brno Conservatory in BD in Brno
22 October
the Brno “Gentleman’s Club” is founded by a group of Czech-community intellectuals, industrialists, and merchants. It becomes a cultural and social center, located in the building of the Mining and Steel Association (on today’s Sukova St., the building of the Czech Savings Bank); L.J. is elected chairman;
6 November
world premiere of the opera The cunning little vixen at the NT in Brno, con. František Neumann, dir. Ota Zítek; design by E. Milén; Vixen sung by H. Hrdličková, Fox Golden-mane by B. Snopková, Gamekeeper A. Flögl; J. is present at the premiere;
15 Nov.
musical journal Hudební rozhledy produces a large double issue for J.’s 70th birthday;
2 December
Lachian dances is performed, under that name and in the final order of six dances, as a concert at the BD, under the auspices of the MCC; the concert was performed by the orchestra of the NT, under the baton of F. Neumann, in celebration of J.’s 70th birthday; J. attended. (The six Lachian dances in the order as published was first played in 1926 in Prague by the Czech Philharmonic under Neumann, again with J. in attendance);
6 Dec.
performance of Jenůfa at the Metropolitan Opera in New York, Maria Jeritza as Jenůfa, conducted by Artur Bodanzky;
8 Dec.
performance of The eternal gospel (con. J. Křička, choirmaster H. Doležil), The fiddler’s child, and Taras Bulba, with the Czech Philharmonic under director Václav Talich, at Smetana Hall in Prague; President T.G. Masaryk attends, and invites J. to the presidential box;
16 Dec.
named honorary member of the Society for Modern Music;
1925
January – 29 April
composes the Concertino for piano and chamber ensemble (prem. 16.2.1926 in Brno);
8 January
in answer to his request for retirement (end of 1924), L.J. receives congratulatory letter from President of Czechoslovakia T.G. Masaryk; J. thanks him in writing on 15.3., and in May of that year invites TGM to a performance of The cunning little vixen presented by the NT as part of the International Festival of Contemporary Music;
23 January
the Brno garrison celebrates J.’s seventieth birthday with a concert of Lachian dances performed by the orchestra of the 43rd Infantry Regiment under band conductor Zita, sung by the Foerster choir; the concert, which drew unusual public interest, was held in the garrison hall on Kotlářská St.;
28 January
becomes the first person to receive an honorary doctorate from Masaryk University;
2 March
piano recital by Béla Bartók at the Reduta Theater in Brno, organized by L.J. on behalf of the Moravian Composers’ Club;
3 March
Moravian Composers’ Club hosts an evening with Arnold Schönberg; J. attends the concert, as well as the Czechoslovak premiere of “Gurrelieder” (performed at the theatre on 8.3.);
May
the International Society for Contemporary Music holds its international festival in Prague; J. attends in the company of his wife, as a leading exponent of contemporary Czech music, and in his capacity as chairman of the Moravian Composers’ Club; the festival featured the Prague premiere of The cunning little vixen, under the baton of O. Ostrčil, directed by Ferdinand Pujmann, with design by Josef Čapek; during the festival a lot of photos were taken of J. on a steamboat tour on the Vltava River;
8 May
a memorial to Pavel Křížkovský is unveiled at the foot of the hill below Špilberk Castle in Brno, by sculptor František Fabiánek; the memorial was the result of many years of effort by J. to honor this important Moravian artist and find a dignified location for his memorial; Janáček was member of a committee to erect a Křížkovský memorial;
18 May
The NT in Prague stages The cunning little vixen under the baton of Otakar Ostrčil, dir. by Ferdinand Pujman, des. Josef Čapek; J. attends premiere;
June
completes movement of symphony The Danube which he started in June 1923; he never got back to working on the piece;
4 – 24 June
takes the cure at Luhačovice spa, staying at the Augustinian House; during the visit J. takes a trip by auto (9.6.) to Kunovice, where he views the painting “Kožuchy” by J. Uprka, and visits Antonín Frolka, whose paintings J. admired, in Tasov; in mid-June L.J.’s portrait was painted by Emil Stanislav Kopřiva. J. sat for the picture wearing the “lucky ring” given him by Kamila Stösslová; the picture hangs today at the Janáček Archive of the Moravian Regional Museum;
18 – 20 June
J.’s choruses If you only knew, Alas the war, and The evening witch performed by choirs from Rožnov and Kopřivnice at the Wallachian Festival in Rožnov; J. attends the festival on 18 and 19 June, and views the famous Jaroňek tapestries;
July – August
writes Nursery rhymes for 3 female voices, clarinet, and piano, inspired by nursery rhymes illustrated by Josef Lada, Ondřej Sekora, and Jan Hala in Lidové noviny (LN); it was performed that same year in Brno (26.10.); this “short” version contained 8 rhymes, which with minor alterations became part of the 1926 expanded version;
3 – 8 September
in the company of his wife Zdenka, J. travels via Písek to Venice, Italy, where he visits the International Festival of Contemporary Music; in Venice his 1st violin quartet is interpreted by the Zika Quartet; he wrote down his impressions of the trip, the Venice festival, and the compositions he heard there, in his feuilleton “Basta!”, published in LN on 8. 11. 1925;
17 Oct.
the male chorus The garland (1904-1906), based on the melody and lyrics of a folk song “In the mountains of Bruntál”; first performed in Brno by the PSMU;
prior to 24 Oct.
J. attends a lecture by Josef Zubatý, influential linguist and first biographer of A. Dvořák, at the Faculty of Arts, Masaryk University; J. writes a feuilleton “Josef Zubatý”, published in LN on 24. 10. 1925;
26 Oct.
premiere of Nursery rhymes (short version) at BD song and poetry evening organized by the Readers’ Club, with J. in attendance;
prior to 6 Nov.
J. receives state award, as determined by a jury consisting of influential musicologists and critics Jan Branberger, Vladimír Helfert, Ladislav Vycpálek and Vítězslav Novák, for his opera The cunning little vixen;
11 November
first performance in Brno of J.’s first opera Šárka, by the orchestra of the NT conducted by F. Neumann, directed by Ota Zítek, design by Vlastislav Hofman; Šárka was sung by Hana Pírková, Ctirad by Emil Olšovský, Přemysl by Arnold Flögl;
13 Nov.
J. resigns in writing from his post as chairman of the Moravian Composers’ Club;
30 Nov.
receives state award from the Czech Academy for his 1st string quartet and the wind sextet Youth;
by 5 December
finishes work on the opera The Makropulos affair; the premiere is held in Brno the following year;
from 10 Dec.
begins composing male chorus Our flag on the text of the poem “Flag” by F. S. Procházka the work premiered on 16.10.1926 in Přerov;
1926
n.d.
Gustav Böhm paints an oil portrait of L.J.; next to Milén’s 1928 drawing (portrait in Chinese ink), this is the most well-known portrait of J.;
24 January
in the foyer of Brno’s Theater Na Hradbách (today’s Mahen Theater), a bronze bust of Janáček, the next to last work of sculptor Jan Štursa, is unveiled in the artist’s presence; J. had viewed the life’s work of Štursa at a retrospective exhibit in Prague;
16 February
premiere of Concertino at the MCC concert in BD in Brno; the piece was performed in Prague four days later; J, present
from 2 March
composes Sinfonietta for large orchestra, his most famous orchestral work; one of J.’s inspirations for the movement entitled Fanfare was a promenade concert by the military band in Písek that J. heard while visiting there in May 1925; the premiere of the Sinfonietta was held in Prague that same year, under the title “Sletová symfonietta” (i.e., the symphoniette for the annual festival of the Sokol patriotic physical fitness organization);
by 26 March
completes the male chorus Our flag on a text by F.S. Procházka; premiere performed by the MTC under Ferdinand Vach on 16.10.1926 in Přerov;
8, 9 April
concert and lecture at the Moravian Composers’ Club by American avant-garde composer Henry Cowell, attended by J. In 1927 (3.8.). Henry Cowell names Janáček an honorary member of the New Music Society of California;
28 April – 10 May
J. travels to Great Britain (London) at the invitation of Rosa Newmarch; he travels via Germany to the Netherlands, boarding the ferry in Vlisseng, and debarking in Folkstone; in London a number of J.’s compositions are performed: 1st strng quartet, Violin sonata, Youth, and Fairy tale for cello and piano; J. meets Henry Wood, Seton-Watson, and other important figures of British cultural and social life; J. appears at the School of Slavonic Studies and the Czechoslavonic Club in London; he witnesses a general strike, and hears the great violinist Adila Fachiri, granddaughter of J. Joachim, perform his Violin sonata at Wigmore Hall – her artistic expression is regarded as one of the possible inspirations for his Violin concerto. On the return trip he stops for two days in Vlisseng, continuing on from there to the spa in nearby Domburg, with a visit to Midleburg;
15 May
the NT in Brno plays Mr. Brouček’s excursion to the Moon, part 1 of the double opera The excursions of Mr. Brouček; conducted by F. Neumann, dir. Ota Zítek, design by Josef Čapek; with Valentin Šindler as Mr. Brouček; J. in attendance; the opera in its entirety was not performed in Brno until 25. 11.1937;
May – June
works on the violin concerto Pilgrimage of the soul; the work remained unfinished; the music was incorporated by J. into his last opera From the house of the dead;
31 May
the opera Káťa Kabanová is performed in Berlin Charlottenburg with great success, and J. in attendance; after Cologne, Germany (1922) this was the second staging of the opera abroad; on this occasion J. personally met both Arnold Schönberg and Franz Schrecker, who came to congratulate J. on the premiere; the success of the performance led to J.’s being named a member of the Prussian Academy;
from 13 June
in Hukvaldy, J.’s portrait, a study in pastel, is painted by František Ondrůšek;
during the last few visits to Hukvaldy by Janáček, not only during the summer holidays, J. produced: the 2nd movement of the symphony The Danube (1923), and a revision of Act 2 of the opera The Makropulos affair (1925); he began work on a small version of Nursery rhymes (1925), and later the String quartet no. 2;
26 June
premiere of Sinfonietta, performed by the Czech Philharmonic under Václav Talich, on the occasion of the VIIIth Sokol Festival, in the presence of the composer. During the premiere J. assigned the names of all five movements: I Fanfare, II The Castle, III The Royal Monastery, IV The Street, V The Town Hall; he talks about the composition in a feuilleton entitled “My Town”, published in Lidové noviny, 24.12.1927;
10, 11 July
unveiling of memorial plaque on the house of J.’s birth in Hukvaldy (the village schoolhouse); there is a two-day celebration in Hukvaldy, Kopřivnice, and Štramberk; plaque and relief by Olomouc sculptor Jan Pelikán; at the two festival concerts (in Kopřivnice and Hukvaldy), the fanfare from Smetana’s “Libuše” was followed mostly by the compositions of Janáček: Sonata for violin and piano, Hukvaldy folk poetry in songs, In the mist, 1st string quartet, Diary of one who has disappeared, Fairy tale for cello and piano, Silesian songs, and On the overgrown path. The first concert in Kopřivnice was played by Brno artists, while artists from northern Moravia performed the concert in Hukvaldy;
2 Aug. – 15 Oct.
J. composes Glagolitic mass on an Old Church Slavonic liturgical text; he writes the organ solo in December, and revises the piece in 1927; it premieres 5. 12. 1927 in Brno;
6 – 27 August
in Luhačovice, at the Augustinian House; during the visit he begins writing the Glagolitic mass;
October, n.d.
J. buys the score of Stravinsky’s “Rite of Spring”; he learns of Stravinsky from the press, and knew some of his works from the festival in Venice and from a concert at the Moravian Composers’ Club in 1925; in 1926 his “The Firebird” and “Fireworks” were was studied by F. Neumann and the orchestra of the National Theater;
16 October
in Přerov, the MTC under Ferdinand Vach performs the premiere of the male chorus Our flag;
26 Oct.
the German-language theater in Brno studies Jenůfa; con. Hermann Adler, directed by Eugen Guth; the Brno staging premiered three days after the opera was presented by Prague’s Neues Deutsches Theater on 23.10. under Alexander Zemlinsky, directed by Lons Laber;
30 Oct.
composes Capriccio for left-handed piano and chamber wind ensemble (prem. 2.3.1928 in Prague);
18 December
original premiere of J.’s opera The Makropulos affair by the NT in Brno; the work was conducted by František Neumann, directed by Ota Zítek, with design by Josef Čapek; Emilia Marty – Alexandra Čvanová, Albert Gregor – Emil Olšovský, Baron Prus – Zdeněk Otava; J. attends;
27 December
finishes second version of Nursery rhymes, which he had been working on since 14 November; this expanded version for 9 voices and 10 instruments consists of 19 pieces: performed the following spring in Brno; concert is broadcast by radio;
1927
21 January
joins the Hukvaldy chapter of the Sokol patriotic physical fitness organization;
from 10 Feb.
large portrait of J. by František Ondrůšek painted in Bystřice pod Hostýnem and Brno. The portrait is shown at the members’ exhibit of the Association of Moravian Artists in Hodonín; vernisage held in October 1927. Today the oil painting is the property of the Brno Conservatory;
13 Feb.
the opera of the municipal theatre in Mainz stages The cunning little vixen; it is the opera’s first foreign staging;
from 18 Feb.
begins composing his last opera, From the house of the dead, on his own libretto based on the novel by Dostoyevsky. He finishes the opera in May 1928, but does not live to finish the final revision, which is taken up, along with instrumentation by J.’s students Břetislav Bakala and O. Chlubna; premieres in Brno in 1930, conducted by B. Bakala, directed by Ota Zítek, design by František Hlavica. The opera is performed according to Chlubna and Bakala’s version until 1958, when the NT in Prague conducted by J. Vogel and directed by H. Thein stage the opera with original ending by Janáček. A new critical version of the opera was prepared by conductor Václav Nosek for a performance of the NT in Brno on 29.9.1974;
18 February
named a member of the Prussian Academy of Arts in Berlin, along with Arnold Schönberg and Paul Hindemith;
3 March
attends “afternoon tea” in the Spanish Hall at Prague Castle, during which he speaks with President Masaryk, who expressed interest in J.’s activities on behalf of the Institute for Folk Song;
4 April
encounters the opera “Wozzeck” by Alban Berg at a Brno performance of some excerpts from the opera; J.’s Sinfonietta is also performed at the same concert by the orchestra of the NT in Brno, con. F. Neumann);
11 April
after a performance of Jenůfa in Antwerp, Belgium (9.1.1927), J. is awarded the Order of the Knights of Leopold by the King of Belgium;
after 17 Apr.
J. and Kamila Stösslová become closer friends during a visit by J. to Písek; from then on J. would address her using the familiar “Ty” form;
25 Apr.
premiere of the second version of the Nursery rhymes at a concert in Brno of the Moravian Composers’ Club (the so-called long version was written during the holidays in 1926, and J. wanted to have it performed together with projections of pictures by artists Lada, Sekora, and Hala, which accompanied the nursery rhymes in Lidové noviny);
prior to 21 May
Zdenka Janáčková discovers J.’s yearning for Kamila Stösslová; from then on he burns Kamila’s letters; this was the final rift in the Janáčeks’ marriage; J. tried to explain himself in a letter to his wife (13.6.) and to David Stössl (15.6.);
27 May
in an open letter printed in LN, J. resigns from the National Democratic Party, of which he had been a member since 1922;
8 – 24 June
J. visits Hukvaldy, where he makes a list of his property and writes his will;
around 30 June
attends the International Music Festival in Frankfurt am Main, where his Concertino is performed; he brought with him to the international festival a folk fiddlers’ band from Myjava as a counterweight to the Czech bagpipe band;
3 – 4 July
celebration of Janáček’s music in Štramberk; J. is away in Frankfurt at the time. A bust of J. by sculptor Emil Hlavica is unveiled for the occasion on the top of Kotouč peak;
16 August – 2 September
J. stays in Luhačovice, where he meets František Ondrůšek; resides at Augustinian House;
12 – 17 Sept.
in the company of Zdenka, J. makes an excursion to Radhošt Peak along with the Ondrůšek’s; leaving afterward for Hukvaldy;
16 – 24
in Hukvaldy; last time Zdenka and Leoš Janáček are together in Hukvaldy;
29 September
J attends Sinfonietta in Berlin conducted by Klempere, who conducted the same piece in New York on March 4 1927;
n.d.
in fall, J. was awarded a State award for Makropulos affair;
5 December
J. attends the premiere of Glagolitic mass, performed at the hall of the Stadion in Brno; it was performed by the Philharmonic Choir of the Beseda brněnská, with Jaroslav Kvapil conducting the orchestra of the NT in Brno; during the rehearsals J. is visited by French music critic William Ritter, who wrote a long review of the work for the Swiss papers, and wanted to write a book about J.;
24 Dec.
J.’s feuilleton “My Town” is published in Lidové noviny (article first published in the German-language Prager Presse on 4. 12. 1927); the article celebrates Czechoslovak independence, which is also considered to be at the heart of the Sinfonietta;
1928
January
the new year is clouded by the tragic death of Rudolf Těsnohlídek, a member of J.’s circle of close friends;
7 Jan.
meets in Prague with English composer Gustav Holst;
14 Jan.
leaves for Hukvaldy, where he intends to rest for two weeks, and check on the reconstruction and refurnishing of his house; by the summertime he composed his 2nd string quartet here; he interrupts his stay by traveling to Prague;
21 Jan.
attends the premiere performance of Káťa Kabanová as studied by the Prague German-language theatre; the intermezzo between acts 1 and 2 is heard here for the first time;
29 Jan.
in his house in Hukvaldy, J. hangs paintings by Frantšek Dvořák that he selected and bought with the help of František Ondrůšek;
29 Jan. – 19 February
Janáček writes his IInd String quartet “Intimate letters”, in Brno and Hukvaldy; J. does not live to hear the premiere, only rehearsals by the Moravian Quartet, the first to interpret the work;
1 March
the opera of the NT in Prague studies The Makropulos affair, con. O. Ostrčil, dir. Josef Munclinger, des. Josef Čapek, J. attends the premiere;
2 March
premiere of Cappriccio in Prague, piano part for left hand played by Otakar Hollmann, with J. in attendance;
8 March
writes Reminiscence for piano, dedicated to Yugoslavian composer Miloj Milojevič;
7 – 10 April
while in Prague to attend the performance of Glagolitic mass at Smetana Hall in the Municipal House (Obecní dům, 8. 4. President T.G.Masaryk present), J. visits the Stössls; together they visit Bertramka park; J. records his impression of the Bertramka in the feuilleton “Sounding the alarm”;
22 May
writes “My Lachia” as a foreword to a printing of the score of Lachian dances; with this edition the Lachian dances are finally given once and for all a permanent title, and an order for the six dances;
27 May
the Exhibition of Contemporary Culture opens in Brno;
31 May – 5 June
in Hukvaldy, J. writes an outline the incidental music to Hauptmann’s play “Schuck und Jau”; J. backed out of composing the incidental music for the play, which was sent to him through the mail by Gustav Hartung, on behalf of whom Max Brod had spoken to J.;
9 June
premiere of the Chorus for laying of foundation stone of Masaryk University in Brno, with lyrics by Antonín Trýb, at the ceremonial laying of the cornerstone for the faculty of law at Masaryk University (chorus written on 2. 4. 1928);
July
the School of Slavonic Studies in London elects Janáček a corresponding member;
1 – 21 July
Luhačovice, Augustinian House; during his stay at the spa J. is visited by Willian Ritter, expert on Czech music, esp. Slovak folklore; in 1923 he wrote a brief article about J. for the French Encyklopedie de la Musique, and Ritter offered two of his librettos to be put to music by J.; J. then returned from Luhačovice to Brno;
29 July
in the company of the Stössls, J. visits the Exhibition of Contemporary Culture in Brno;
30 July
he departs, along with the Stössls, for Hukvaldy, where he had been renovating, remodeling, and modernizing his house there since December; J. had long yearned for and planned for a visit by the Stössls, especially Kamila;
1 August
J., along with Kamila and her son Otta, make an excursion to Štramberk;
8 Aug.
J. becomes ill;
9 Aug.
Hukvaldy doctor Emil Franta is called to J.’s side;
10 Aug.
J. is taken to the sanatorium of Dr. L. Klein in Ostrava;
12 Aug.
writes his last letter, to Willam Ritter, and a new will. He dies at 10:00 AM; Zdenka J. travels to Ostrava, receives J.’s personal effects from Kamila, and the two leave that same day for Hukvaldy;
15 Aug.
J.’s funeral in Brno, procession leads from the building of the Theater Na Hradbách;
17 Aug.
his remains are temporarily laid to rest in the field of honor at the Central Cemetery. The gravestone by E. Milén bears an epitaph taken from J.’s chorus The wandering madman”: “With life’s force spent , his heart broken like a tree with its roots torn upt”.